THE BAYCITIES OBSERVER    Virginia McCullough       

"Have I missed the  mark, or, like a true archer,  do I strike my quarry?
Or am I a prophet of lies, a babbler from door to door?"
                             Cassandra, as reported by Agamemnon.         

(Part 1 of 4)

In the golden state of California, there lies a valley of plenty.  Twenty-five miles long and ten miles wide, it too is golden.  Rich in history, endowed with natural beauty, enriched by the finest universities, this valley draws the finest minds and the hardest workers in the world.

Its history begins on August 5, 1775.  The story is best told by a book published in 1940 as part of the American Guide Series, entitled San Francisco - The Bay and Its Cities [pages 19 and 20]:  

As darkness fell on August 5, 1775, the San Carlos, having sent a launch ahead to find anchorage, sailed cautiously through the Golden Gate and anchored for the night.  On August 7 it moved to a new anchorage on the north side of Raccoon Strait and a week later to another in Hospital Cove off Angel Island.

The hardy band of settlers whom Juan Bautista de Anza led through incredible hardships all the way overland from Tubac in Sonora province had arrived on the present site of San Francisco with a platoon of soldiers and two priests by the time the San Carlos sailed a second time through the Golden Gate.  With the assistance of the ship's carpenters and crew, Lieutenant Jose Joaquin Moraga's soldiers were able, on September 17, 1776, to raise the standard of Carlos III of Spain over the quarters of the commandant (commander) in the Presidio.  The occasion was celebrated with a high mass, the firing of cannon, and the chanting of a fervent Te Deum.

The opening and dedication of the new Mission San Francisco de Assisi (later known as Mission Dolores) on the grass-clad slope near a small lake, dolefully named by the padres Laguna de los Dolores (Lake of the Sorrows), was delayed until October 8, 1776 because of the absence of Moraga on an exploring expedition.  Moraga's expedition observed the feast-day of Saint Francis by proving conclusively that the Golden Gate was the only entrance to San Francisco Bay.  "At length, " exclaimed Padre Serra on his arrival at the new mission the following year, "our Father St. Francis has advanced the sacred cross.... to the very last extremity of California; to go further requires ships."

Unfortunately, St. Francis' new mission lacked adjacent arable land.  Anza's poverty-stricken settlers, and the few who came after them, soon found the fertile Santa Clara Valley to the south more suitable for them than the wind-swept sandy wastes of the area dedicated to their patron saint.  Therefore, on January 12, 1777, the new Mission Santa Clara was founded down the peninsula.  And three miles south of it arose the first purely civil settlement in California --- the pueblo (town) of San Jose.

Before the close of the century two more Franciscan missions had been established in the Bay area: Mission Santa Cruz, on August 28, 1791, and Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, on June 11, 1797..  The lands which reminded Anza's settlers of the fertile valleys of Valencia soon brought prosperity to these adobe outposts of Catholicism......
                                      San Francisco - The Bay and Its Cities
                                      American Guide Series - Illustrated
                                      Hastings House - publishers - New York - 1940

This,  then, was the beginning.  One hundred years later the foremost industry was the product of that fertile land the pueblo of San Jose rested upon.  Peaches, pears, cherries and apricots were grown in such quantities that a man named John Z. Anderson, former operator of a line of freight teams between California and Nevada, converted a railroad freight car into the first refrigerator car, by packing ice around boxes of cherries.  Now the bountiful produce from the Santa Clara Valley was shipped as far away as Chicago, Illinois.  In 1939  the industry employed between 15,000 and 30,000 people at work in the orchards, canneries, packing houses, and drying yards.

As late as the 1950's this agricultural heaven was called "The Valley of the Heart's Delight".  Orchards stretched across the long, narrow valley as far as the eye could see; each spring the valley was painted in pinks and whites by the trees overladen with blossoms awaiting the heavy fruit that would follow.  In the 1950's this Horn of Plenty was the 10th largest growing area in the United States.

World War II was over, the soldiers were home, and life in the Valley was good.  Few clouds were on the horizon but there were shadows.  The influx of post-war student growth was taxing the universities located there.  The finances, faculty and staff of the colleges were strapped.  The obvious question was where to find the money to absorb the people eager to learn.

Stanford University, located on the western boundary of Palo Alto, California, was just one college facing dire circumstances.  But unlike its neighboring universities, Stanford was land rich and cash poor.  The Stanfords had endured a great deal of hardship and rejection to maintain this university named in honor of their son.  However, when the Stanfords dedicated "The Farm" to the University, an unbreakable provision disallowed any portion of the 8,000+ acres being sold.  The solution was to create long-term leases that enabled the emerging  high technology companies to find homes on property located very close to the centers of learning.  Allegiances between the professors, the students, and the new companies were a natural outgrowth of the new "industrial parks" located close to college campuses.

In 1951 Varian Associates signed the first long-term lease with Stanford University.  Brothers Russell and Sigurd Varian had worked rent free in a Stanford Laboratory during World War II;  it was there that the Varian Brothers developed their Klystron tube.  There was mutual trust between the university and the owners of the company.  In 1953 Varian Associates moved into the first "high technology campus" filled with low profile buildings surrounded by wide expanses of lawns and outside benches that encouraged the workers to enjoy the abundant California sunshine.

This first industrial park became the prototype of industrial parks that spread southward swallowing up the orchards.  Companies such as Westinghouse Electric, Sylvania, Fairchild Semiconductor and Shockley Transistor filled the valley  southward toward the giant IBM campus which occupied  the narrow southern tip of the valley where San Jose disappears and the garlic fields of Gilroy begin.       

The 1950's and 1960's saw a new life form take over the valley.  By 1973 this Valley of the Heart's Delight had been renamed.  It 1972 the fertile valley became known the world over as Silicon Valley, a term coined by electronic writer, Don Hoeffler.  So the Valley had a new name and a new breed of men: engineers who followed the teaching of the Stanford Dean and Provost known as the Intellectual Father of Silicon Valley, Frederick Emmons Terman.  Terman was an acknowledged visionary who saw the future and it was NOW.   He urged his followers and his students to stay and work in the very valley they were creating.  He was a mentor to such notable Silicon Valley icons as David Packard and William Hewlett.

The turbulent and historical times of the 1960's and 1970's rubbed off on the valley's new company founders.  Few engineers left to don the stuffed white shirts of the "safe" electronic companies of the East Coast.  They found the stimulation of new discoveries preferable to the 9-5 stifling society of the east coast.  The well-established, large companies located on the Atlantic sea shore were anathemas to these curious, adventuresome explorers graduating from the ever-expanding universities bordering the Pacific ocean.

Certainly it was the technology, the opportunities, the economics - it was all of these things.  But just as important was the freedom of the California life style that creative minds thrive on as they reach for their goals.  Gone were the three-piece suits.  Blue jeans and sports shirts replaced white shirts and ties.  Mercedes became rare and sports cars were found in every new company's parking lot.  It did not matter if the innovative engineers had the time to drive the cars,  see their wives, or go home at night to kiss their children goodnight.  This was the thrill of "The Soul of the New Machine".  This was Silicon Valley -- they had created it  -- they loved it!

Then the 1980's struck!!  Powers to be in the government and the pentagon became paranoid and frightened by this strange culture that worshipped work and innovation.  The technology was moving too fast for the pentagon's old and slow machines.  Creative geniuses sought private, closely-held companies with IPO's just around the corner.  No one seemed interested in secure, defense work any more.  Newly elected President Ronald Reagan's first executive order was the re-instatement of "Operation Exodus", a continuation of the export restrictions on high technology that had been rejected by the United States Congress.  The brakes were being applied.  The Evil Empire still existed in the President's mind and the Cold War had just been re-ignited.

The rivers of gold flowing from the valley would soon become rivers of blood.

by Virginia McCullough © 2/2/16

THE BAYCITIES OBSERVER    Virginia McCullough       

"Have I missed the  mark, or, like a true archer,  do I strike my quarry?
Or am I a prophet of lies, a babbler from door to door?"
                             Cassandra, as reported by Agamemnon.         



(Part 2 of 4)

"Hall had been trying to bring attention to a miscalculation in a multi-million dollar installation of super laser beams that is part of the ignition facility....... Police Detective Charlie Garrison said, "We think Lee Hall is the only one who knew to this day exactly what the problem is and its fix".
             San Francisco Chronicle Article, 2-15-2000 By Mike Weiss

During a speech about Grenada in March 1983,  President Ronald Reagan announced his idea for a space-based missile shield to protect the United States from incoming missiles.  Following a meeting with physicist Edward Teller who was adamantly against any agreement to freeze the development of nuclear arms, Reagan urged full speed ahead and set in motion a project that startled even his closest Pentagon advisers.  In the era of George Lucas' Star Wars movie craze, Reagan dubbed his Strategic Defense Initiative, "Star Wars".

From 1983 to 1985 Edward Teller and his colleague, Lowell Wood, lobbied anyone who would listen, telling the world that SDI was the greatest thing since Reagan's jelly beans.  A sales pitch was necessary because the first stage deployment would cost the taxpayers about $15 billion.  A fully deployed space-based system would cost $150 billion, IF the technology was realistic and IF the project could be brought in on time.

By the middle of May 1988, countless scientists were openly questioning the viability of "Star Wars".  The cost in 1988 was $12 billion and constantly climbing.

Senator Barbara Boxer, D-San Rafael, described the SDI as the president's "astrological dream...a dream of laser weapons powered by nuclear explosions, particle beam weapons, chemical rockets and space-based interceptors parked in 'garages' in orbit".

It was an exciting, accurate description and it fired an imaginative mind.  The Evil Empire still represented to the US, in the minds of its citizens and in the eyes of the President.  a very real threat to our daily existence.

An article by Robert Scheer that appeared in the Los Angeles Times Magazine on July 17, 1988 told of the dissent of scientists who were responsible for engineering the program.  Entitled "The Man Who Blew the Whistle on Star Wars," it quoted the featured subject of the article, Roy Woodruff.  Woodruff was head of Lawrence Livermore Laboratories "R" Division, the scientists and technicians responsible for developing an actual working laser.  Woodruff stated, "We were not in an engineering phase then and we are not today".

One of the biggest military research projects of all time, Star Wars was constantly re-invented by its backers.  On February 16, 1991, The Baltimore Evening Sun's editorial drew its readers' attention to the subtitle of the 1964 anti-war classic film "Dr. Strangelove", which was:  "How I Stopped Worrying and Learned to Love the Bomb".  The editorial continued:

That pretty much tells what has happened in the first two weeks of the Persian Gulf war; the brass hats have succeeded in getting the romance of weaponry back on track by daily touting the dazzling feats of planes and missiles.

So it comes as no surprise that proponents of "Star Wars" have seized the moment to urge that their favorite weapons system be restored to the prominence it had in the Reagan administration before it was quietly relegated by President Bush to the deep freezes of the Pentagon's contingency planning sections.

The argument goes like this: Since the Patriot missiles have proved to be so successful in shooting down Iraqi "Scud" missiles, then let's build "Star Wars" right away - and hang the cost - so we can shoot down all ballistic missiles.

That argument is about as ludicrous as saying that now that we've put astronauts on the moon, let's put a few on the sun. 

In 1999 the SDI organization's response to such criticism was to change the name of the project from "Star Wars" to "Brilliant Pebbles" and delay deployment two years until fiscal 1995.  It was also announced that the Lawrence Livermore Laboratories would remain a key part of the newly named project that critical scientists were already dubbing "Dumb Rocks".

The fact that SDI, by 1995, would violate the U.S.-Soviet treaty limiting anti- ballistic missiles was pushed aside and forgotten.

By 1992 the Cold War was evaporating.  Silicon Valley's Sun Microsystems hired Russian scientist Boris A. Babayan to set up a laboratory in Moscow for their company.  Babayon had created the supercomputers used to design nuclear weapons for the Soviet space program and its military.  The times they were a-changin'!

By 1994 even the scientists at Lawrence Livermore Laboratories were moving to protect their income by spinning off companies to use the technology developed from the Lab's Brilliant Pebbles project development in 1992.  Admitting that the Star Wars effort was unlikely ever to be deployed,  it was speculated that spin offs such as WorldView Imaging Corp. could employ the technology and profit from it.

In 1996, Gary Chapman, director of the 21st Century Project at the University of Texas, writing for the Los Angeles Times, said: 

One panel was charged with looking at the computer requirements for a system that would necessarily be controlled remotely and at speeds beyond human capacities for reaction.

A member of this panel was David L. Parnas, world-renowned software engineer and professor of computer science in Canada (although Parnas was a U.S. citizen and a longtime Pentagon consultant).  Parnas spent two days listening to Air Force briefings, then in June 1985 he resigned from the advisory panel, concluding that the fundamental computer requirements for strategic defense could never be satisfied.

Parnas, an eminent scientist, was shamefully called a "traitor" by Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger in 1985.  Will the Republicans insist in 1996 that we ignore the limitation of computers in order to be considered patriotic Americans? 

Many crimes were committed against United States scientists by their own government during the Cold War years of the 1980's.  The vast majority of those crimes were executed to support political agendas such as Star Wars and Operation Exodus.  The orders came from the highest political powers in Washington D.C. and were carried out by the U.S. Department of Justice, state and local district attorney's offices and their supporting law enforcement agencies.

In 1988 a brilliant software engineer and programmer  was arrested and tried under federal Operation Exodus laws for the theft of Saxpy Computer's technology.  The motive behind the decision to prosecute Anderson under federal law, for what amounted to a state crime, was the Federal Government's desire to capture the man they called "The Techno Bandit of the Decade",  the infamous Charles McVey.  This author wrote the following letter to various newspapers at that time: 

In reply to a horrendous hit piece written by someone named Joshua Hammer in the Los Angeles Times Magazine dated June 5, 1988, this writer wrote the following poem to comply with the demands of the publisher who limited all letters to the editors  written in defense of Kevin Anderson to very few words:

For Kevin Eric Anderson: Who loves poems and poets: 

Political prisoners are in other lands, you see
We live in the land of the brave and of the free.

Twelve years later, I would stand by every word I wrote in 1988.  Careers, politics, money, secrecy, power and prestige are all at stake when an honest engineer endangers an ill-advised but heavily-financed project.  It is a very real possibility that murdered design engineer Lee Scott Hall is the victim of the politically charged atmosphere surrounding the myth that is "Star Wars". 

How did  our scientists lose their freedom and why were they targeted?


by Virginia McCullough © 2/2/16

THE BAYCITIES OBSERVER    Virginia McCullough       

"Have I missed the  mark, or, like a true archer,  do I strike my quarry?
Or am I a prophet of lies, a babbler from door to door?"
                             Cassandra, as reported by Agamemnon.         


(Part 3 of 4)

The I.B.M Slogan

      Who are we?  Who are we?
      The International Family.
      We are T.J. Watson men -
      We represent I.B.M.
      Are we right?  Well, I should smile!
      We've been right for a very long while.
To Our I.B.M. Engineers
(Tune: "Mademoiselle from Arnentieres")

1.   We're proud of all our Engineers in I.B.M.
      No problem in unsolvable to these great men.
      We thank and praise our engineers, the whole wide world
            unites in cheers
      To the Engineers of I.B.M.

2.    Each year they perfect new machines for I.B.M.
       Superior products all the time for businessmen.
       We thank and praise our Engineers, the who wide world
             unites in cheers
       To the Engineers of I.B.M.

                                               1931 Edition "Songs of the I.B.M.

In the middle 1950's high tech campuses filled industrial parks and the orchards in The Valley of the Heart's Delight" were stolen - one by one.  From Mt. View to the southern boundaries of San Jose eager,  young men pushed the boundaries of science inventing new and faster machines.

The fever that infected the hardware and software engineers and programmers was not the same thirst that left the venture capitalist panting for more.  The desire for wealth was not the initial impetus driving the eager entrepreneurs.  The challenge was to build a faster, cheaper machine than the mighty IBM.  The battle cry was "Bury Big Blue"; everyone wanted to be on the "BBB" team.

IBM was the gargantuan giant, a company where everyone wore business suits and sang theme songs.  Big Blue was the darling of the United States government protected by pyramid patents, lawless lawyers, entrenched engineers, maniacal managers and priceless press releases.  In 1970 IBM was the Berlin Wall shielding America from the war-mongering communists of the Evil Empire.  The export laws that applied throughout the 1970's included advanced technology such as IBM's 360 and 370 mainframe computers.  However, during the early 1970's IBM was doing business with the USSR exporting the 360 and 370 series apparently in compliance with US export law.  In fact Big Blue maintained a small office in Moscow to comply with the warranty guarantees extended to purchasers of their equipment.

After the tragic, turbulent decade of The 60's, America was looking forward to The Serene  70's.  The political assassin- ations that made the United States look like the unstable third world countries it was always criticizing were now a distant memory.

The youthful revolution that ended US involvement in the hated Vietnam War wound down as swiftly as the helicopters departed the roof of the US Embassy in Saigon.  Sitting in the White House, President Johnson had said,  "If we do not end this war they (the anti-war protesters) will come over the wall".  Seeing a nation that needed healing,  this same President made the decision to not seek a second term.  Perhaps he  sensed that a new leader relatively unknown, who was not connected with the people, places, and events of the past, might lead the nation he loved to a new beginning.

When the peanut farmer from Georgia was elected,  the nation was still frightened, divided and insecure.  But when Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter walked down the broad streets of Washington DC on that brisk inaugural day, the nation caught its breath and heaved a sigh of relief.  If this president and his first lady had the courage to walk among their fellow citizens knowing their country's shameful past, then how could the people not be open and full of courage and hope.

On the West Coast in California, the adventurous men of Silicon Valley embraced this new, down-to-earth President.  This new breed abandoned politics feeling the country was safe in Carter's hands.

Hackers returned to their computers; programmers returned to endless hours of staring at a green screen; hardware engineers kept draftsmen busy producing huge schematics; software geniuses wrote ever more exotic software.  All was right with their world.  "The Soul of a New Machine"  was within their grasp.  The race to "Bury Big Blue" was back on track.

It was in the late 1970's that the sleeping behemoth. IBM, woke from its long, contented slumber, raised its monstrous head, sniffed around and smelled competition.  Old dinosaurs are slow to react to new enemies.  Heavily fed with government dollars, it is easy to become passive and unaware of the mouse biting at the heel of the elephant.  That is why so many engineers had a framed picture of a mouse on their office walls.  The small mouse had his finger pointed skyward and the caption read "the mouse that roared".  Welcome to Silicon Valley, circa 1976.      

Soon a new war would erupt on American soil.  A war to dislodge the entrenched companies of Silicon Valley and replace them with the innovative companies of the future.  The technology was advancing too rapidly for the old corporations to respond without the assistance of the US government.  By 1980 the CIA, NSA, DIA, FBI and local law enforcement would all be working together to harness the energy of technology advancing so fast it threatened the status quo.  When President Ronald Reagan took office in 1981, his first Executive Order was to continue the export control act known as "Operation Exodus".

In Part Two of this series we will examine the debate about the advantages and disadvantages of this Executive Order.       

QUOTE OF THE DAY:  "Any woman knows that men manipulate other men with far greater ease than any female can muster.  Free flowing testosterone does not possess any maternal instincts.  It flows uninterrupted devouring everything in its path; it does not even stop at its own destruction.  So it was with the President and his Vice-President as the nation entered the Enigmatic Eighties." Virginia McCullough.

by Virginia McCullough © 2/2/16


THE BAYCITIES OBSERVER    Virginia McCullough       

"Have I missed the  mark, or, like a true archer,  do I strike my quarry?
Or am I a prophet of lies, a babbler from door to door?"
                             Cassandra, as reported by Agamemnon.         

Operation Exodus - The chokehold on Silicon Valley

(Part 4 of 4)

Read the telex (5 pages)  for the October Surprise $MULTIBILLION GOLD Payoff:

Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5


President Ronald Reagan's first executive order, Operation Exodus, extended the stringent requirements of the Export Administration Act of 1979 and added strict enforcement for violations of the Act.  The choke hold would effectively strangle the vibrant economy created by the West Coast's high tech industry.

When it became apparent  that the order would  severely limit their marketing ability, the newly rich of Silicon Valley made their voices heard all the way to Washington D.C.  They were shouting, "We have the products.  Let us sell them in an unrestricted world market."

Quietly the giant corporations whispered in the ears of politicians, "Remember us -- we support the old slow technology used by the Pentagon.  The defense of the United States is at stake.  We have faithfully supported you; don't abandon us now.  Without government contracts,  these upstarts can't last; their technology can be acquired.  Just give us time.  We will catch up".

From the west came the siren song of Silicon Valley seducing the bureaucrats.  Like the thunderous waves of the Pacific Ocean breaking on the rocks of Big Sur, the tempting beauty of a new dawn relentlessly wore away the resistance of politicians sunning themselves on the sandy beaches of the Atlantic Ocean.  The magic of  Initial Public Offerings  (IPOs) rocked the tranquility of the New York Stock Exchange, creating thousands of instant millionaires attired like the rebels of the '60s.  A new, militant voice, not belonging to the military, emphatically told the entrenched government officials, "Give our industry our freedom and we will give you a new, vital economy".

The United States Congress listened.  The Congress would not approve Operation Exodus.  It is obvious that newly elected President Reagan knew of their decision.  Within days of taking the Presidential oath,  Ronald Reagan circumvented the will of Congress and issued his first executive order, Operation Exodus.

Who, then, had this President's ear?  The history of the 1980s tells the story.  Reagan's ear was owned by the military industrial complex.  Promoting myths such as Star Wars, scientists like Edward Teller appealed to Reagan's belief in the Apocalypse.  Rabid anti-communists convinced the executive branch of government that Russian missiles would soon rain from the skies over America.  The President's fears assured a  massive national debt in future years as the country spent billions for fanciful weapons to defeat a mythical enemies.  That debt would guarantee that Reagan's Vice-President, former CIA Director George W. Bush Sr.,  would be a one term president.  The battle cry now became "It's the economy, stupid!"

Has any citizen wondered how their newly elected President "gets up to speed" so rapidly  that he is able to take over the most important job in the world without missing a heartbeat?  The United States allegedly has an unrestrained media - why haven't they ever asked that question?  Why doesn't CNN do a twenty minute piece exploring that question?  Shouldn't A&E do a one or two hour special to explore that never addressed question?  Shouldn't every American want to know how these extraordinary men who are our presidents learn their job so quickly?

If the question is never asked, it is possible the answer might be that we do not have a democracy after all.  We might have a form of government that simply submits to the dictates of world politics by placing a different figurehead on America's throne as events dictate.  In the year 2000, as Bush Jr. seeks to be elected to Bush Sr.'s former position, it is time to ask the question, "Is the keeper of the flame  -- the gatekeeper of the secret government?"

President Kennedy's bloody assassination on the streets of Dallas in November of 1963 proved to the majority of Americans that no president is safe from the very agents and agencies sworn to protect him.  Presidents are isolated from the citizens that elect them and "protected" by people with their own agendas.  The President of the United States is probably the most venerable of all America's citizens.  Individuals who seek that position do so because they passionately want power and control.  If  they disclose the gatekeeper's secrets when elected, they find they have neither.

Assuming the keeper and the gatekeeper share and protect the same horrible truths, one must ask, "What was happening in the world in the 1970s that persuaded newly elected President Ronald Reagan to endanger the economy and well being of the nation he swore to protect and serve?
The following history of George Bush Sr. in the 1970s first appeared in an article in the Progressive Review during the 1992 campaign.  It can be read in its entirety on line at : 

George Bush Sr. had first been elected to public office in 1966 when  his close friend, Robert Mosbacher collected the money for his campaign by chairing "Oil Men for Bush".

In 1970 Bush ran for the United States Senate losing to Lloyd Bentsen, despite receiving $112,000 in contributions from Nixon's White House slush fund.

To keep George Bush Sr. in the public eye,  President Nixon named him Ambassador to the United Nations in 1971.

Returning the favor Bill Liedtke collected $700,000 in anonymous contributions for the Nixon campaign in 1972.  The contribution consisted of cash, checks and securities that Liedtke delivered to the infamous Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREEP) the day before such contributions became illegal.  Liedtke said that he did this as a favor for Bush Sr.

In 1973 George Bush Sr. is named GOP National Chairman and brings into the party far right supporters such as the Heritage Groups Council, an organization with a number of Nazi sympathizers.  Watergate tapes recorded by Nixon and his aide, HR Haldeman show that Nixon is concerned that Watergate might expose the "Bay of Pigs thing".  Nixon also speaks of the "Texans" and the "Cubans" and mentions Bush's friend "Mosbacher".   In another tape, Nixon decides following his re-election to get signed resignations from his whole government so he can centralize his power.  Says Nixon to John Erlichman: "Eliminate everyone, except George Bush.  Bush will do anything for our cause."

In 1974 Bush is named special envoy to China.                                          

In 1976 President Jerry Ford names George Bush CIA Director, his fourth political patronage job in a little over five years.  Bush   later claims this is the first time he ever worked for the CIA.  At his confirmation hearings, Bush says, "I think we should tread very carefully on governments that are constitutionally elected."

Bush holds first known meeting with Noriega.  Noriega starts receiving $110,000 a year from the CIA.

Noriega is found to be working for the Cubans as well, but he keeps his CIA gig.

Bush sets up Team B with the CIA, a group of neo-conservative outsiders and generals who proceed to double the agency's estimate of Soviet military spending.

Senate committee headed by Frank Church proposes revealing the size of the country's black budget --  intelligence spending that, in contradiction to the Constitution, is kept secret even from the Hill.  According to journalist Tim Weiner, Bush argues that the revelation would be a disaster and would compromise the agency beyond repair.  By a one vote margin the matter is referred to the Senate.  It never reaches the floor.

Chilean dissident Orlando Letelier is assassinated by Chilean secret police agents.  CIA fails to inform FBI of pending plot and of assassins' arrival in US.  CIA claims the hit was the work of left-wingers in search of a martyr.

Bush writes internal CIA memo asking to see cable on Jack Ruby visiting Santos Trafficante in jail.  In 1992 Bush will deny any interest in the JFK assassination while CIA head.

Bush claims nuclear war is winnable.

In 1977 Philippine dictator Marcos buys back Robert Mosbacher's oil concession.  Mosbacher claims he was swindled.  Philippine officials say they never saw any expenditures by Mosbacher on the project.

On August 7, 1977 CIA director Stansfield Turner called a meeting of his people and announced that the Agency had not reduced proportionately now that the Vietnam War had ended.  He announced deep cuts that would target more senior than junior officers.  The pink slips went out on October 31, 1977.  Angry rebuttals by the DDO employees,  to the "Halloween Massacre" at Langley were echoed by the media who claimed that Turner was striking at the heart of the service, that he was jeopardizing its covert action capability and cruelly dumping patriotic Americans.

In 1978 Bush, Mosbacher and Jim Baker become partners in an oil deal.

That same year a Washington Post article by Bob Woodward and Walter Pincus states: "According to those involved in Bush's first political action committee, there were several occasions in 1978-79, when Bush was living in Houston and traveling the country in his first run for the presidency, that he set aside periods of up to 24 hours and told aides that he had to fly to Washington for a secret meeting of former CIA directors.  Bush told his aides that he would not divulge his whereabouts, and that he would not be available."  Former CIA chief Stansfield Turner denies such meetings took place.

On the other side of the world Iran was experiencing a political upheaval that would soon rock American politics.  During the Presidency of Richard Nixon military support increased for the Shah of Iran, whose position of power was shaky.  The CIA felt it was essential to maintain the Shah in power.  When Jimmy Carter took office in 1977 massive Muslim religious demonstrations were taking place and it was soon apparent that the Pahlavi throne would fall.  During 1978 into early 1979, riots took place in several Iranian cities.  Ultimately this revolution would make Ayatollah Hominy the head of the volatile country of Iran.

The Shah of Iran and his family left Iran on January 16, 1979, originally seeking refuge in America.  President Carter declared that the Shah and his family would not be welcome in the United States.  However, on Valentine's day (2-14-79)  revolutionary forces in Tehran overran the United States embassy in Tehran and held seventy employees prisoner for two hours before releasing them.  Quickly the United States lost access to Iranian oil and Iran canceled some $7 billion of uncompleted arms contracts.  On February 25, 1979, the US State Department evacuated the families of all embassy personnel and urged any Americans remaining in Iran to leave as soon as possible.  

President Carter made no attempt to restore the Shah to his throne and he formally recognized the new Islamic government.  The Iranians, however, did not believe that the United States would abandon its long time friend, the Shah.  By now it was public knowledge that the Shah was very ill and President Carter allowed the Shah to enter the US for medical treatment.  He entered the United States on October 22 and survived gall bladder surgery on October 26, 1979.

Iranian students mounted a massive protest, demanding that the United States return the Shah and his multi-million dollar fortune to Iran.  Tensions increased and on the morning of November 4, 1979, exactly one year before the United States Presidential election over 3,000 students stormed the United States embassy in Tehran once again and took the sixty-six people inside hostage, in the name of Khomeini.    

In the middle 1970's, the CIA decided to increase its power.   In retaliation for Turner's Halloween Massacre a decision was made to place CIA operatives in control of American Indian Reservations as a means of laundering money, transporting drugs, and controlling arms sales and biological weapons.   In other words, the CIA wanted to build its own country within the United States and control its own government, not unlike the Vatican operates under the Pope in Italy.   The first such reservation targeted was the Cabazon Indian Reservation located in Indio, California.  The man chosen to control this reservation was "Dr. John Philip Nichols.  A book about the Savings and Loan scandal called "Inside Job" by Stephen Pizzo, Mary Fricker and Paul Muolo describe Nichols as follows (page 304 of the hard copy edition): 

At San Marino Savings in Southern California we heard about a major borrower, G. Wayne Reeder (who also attempted a couple of failed ventures with Herman Beebe), meeting in late 1981 at an arms demonstration with Raul Arana and Eden Pastora.  Contra leaders who were considering buying military equipment from Reeder's Indian bingo-parlor partner, Dr. John Nichols.  Among the equipment were night-vision goggles manufactured by Litton Industries and a light machine gun.  Nichols, according to former Reeder employees and published accounts, had a plan in the early 1980s to build a munitions plant on the Cabazon Indian reservation near Palm Springs in partnership with Wackenhut, a Florida security firm.  The plan fell through.  Nichols was a self-described CIA veteran of assassination attempts against Castro in Cuba and Allende in Chile.  Authorities said he was a business associate of members of the Los Angeles Mafia.  He was later convicted in an abortive murder-for-hire scheme and sentenced to prison.   
The take over of the Cabazon nation did not go smoothly.  A member of the tribe who had been appointed by Nichols as head of security, Fred Alvarez, soon began asking embarrassing questions of his CIA boss.  When he did not receive any answers and the strange happenings on the reservation continued, Alvarez began going through Nichol's CIA files and liberating paperwork.  He took the papers to the media and told them, "As I meet with you, I am a dead man."  After several attempts on his life, Alvarez and two of his friends were tortured and killed in June of 1981.

Alvarez's parents gave this author a telegram [click the five clicks at the beginning of this article to view all five pages]  in October 1991 following the execution murder of investigative reporter Joseph "Danny" Casolaro who had also been investigating the CIA connections to the control of Indian reservations.   In an operation code named "Goldfinger 007" huge amounts of gold was being moved around the world.  This telegram, effective July 27, 1979, conveys gold located in the United States and elsewhere valued at over $8 billion.  Named as the operatives involved in the gold transfer are Dr. John Philip Nichols and Mr. John Macomber of the first National Bank of Boston.  Macomber would later become the President of the Export/Import [Ex-Im] bank.  He is a close friend of George Bush Sr. and Bush's friend Robert Mosbacher. 

Could this Goldfinger 007 gold transfer be the reward sent to Iranian revolutionaries to TAKE the American hostages and set up the operation later known as "The October Surprise" which was the Bush/Casey operation that defeated President Carter?   Could the CIA have paid a foreign nation in gold to set up a coup that would eventually see its former director elected President of the United States? 

Virginia McCullough © 2/2/16