by Linda Minor © 2002

                                                               Permission to reprint with acknowledgement, granted by author.

The research I began into the career of Pug Winokur (whose resignation as chairman of Enron's finance committee and as director was delivered to Enron on June 6, 2002) has opened vistas of understanding I never anticipated.   Following Winokur's connection to Zapata and to Penn Central, however, is helping to lay a path of bricks which is taking us ever closer to Oz--the invisible man behind the veil.  The yellow-brick road is the historical path he took to establish his position of power.  The only way to make him visible is to illuminate the path--to understand the history.  We have to see the world whole in order to fix it.  Oz operates a compartmentalized system where even the people involved in it do not fully understand how their individual roles fit into the overall scheme.  It is therefore critical to connect all the bricks, to prevent participants in the scheme from rationalizing their complicity in the evil that has resulted from the control Oz exerts. 
We often refer to Oz as the Octopus.  We know there is a brain there and a body, but we get confused by all the tentacles waving about in every direction.  If we can just understand that the tentacles are connected, and if we can see the pattern that produces each tentacle, we will be able to bring Oz into better focus.  That is the purpose of this series which began with Pug Winokur's career; to develop a model by which each of us can understand the pattern. We have to come to terms with what Winston Smith understood in George Orwell's 1984--that the people who control our world today perpetrate war in the name of peace, they practice greed in the name of charity, and they spout propaganda in the name of truth.  We cannot accept religious, charitable and political institutions at face value because they were set up in order to deceive us.  The proof is in the pattern.
Pennsylvania's Historical Connection to Slave and Opium Trade 
One thing I have learned in this research project, as a result of trying to learn who benefited when the Penn Central Railroad was looted, is how central the state of Pennsylvania is to the birth and development of what is often called "The New World Order," otherwise referred to as one-world government.  In this part of the series we find that Philadelphia's elite families have close ties to British banking families that were involved in the opium trade in China, that they have ties by marriage to the Astors who hosted the Round Table Group in England, which grew into the Council on Foreign Relations.  We also discover interlocking friendships between the Astors, the Fabian Socialists and British intelligence operatives in the old Ottoman Empire who helped create the nations of Saudi Arabia and Iraq and fostered the rise of King Ibn Saud who granted oil concessions to a California oil company with roots in one of the original Standard Oil companies dissolved in 1911.  We also learn of the relations between members of this group and attorneys and church ministers who acted as advisers to Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller and of the connection between those men and the Pennsylvania Railroad.  
In addition, we will explore the possibility of whether profits from the Rhodes Trust (whose trustees comprised the Round Table) could have been invested, using J.P. Morgan associates as nominees, in strategic industries in Germany, Russia and other countries, acting as part of a consortium of investors.  Such a consortium was in fact formalized by federal law into the American International Corporation (AIC), by a statute introduced almost simultaneously with the passage of the Federal Reserve Act.  We know that agents of J.P. Morgan (the Rhodes Trust's agent in many American investments) and directors of the newly established  New York Federal Reserve Bank exercised control over AIC from the beginning, but at this point we can only speculate about whose capital Morgan was investing--the true owners of the equity held in Morgan's name.  Nor do we know whether the source of deposits in the New York Fed member banks emanated from the same syndicate operations.  What we do know is that the goals of these bankers are contradictory to the ideals of American independence embodied in the U.S. Constitution.  More specifically related to Penn Central history, we know that the Pennsylvania Railroad, dependent upon European investors who held its debt securities, was an investor in a consortium decades prior to the central bank's creation, specifically in regard to shipyards in the vicinity of Philadelphia, an investment which will link back to the Bush and Harriman network. 
When Congress investigated the collapse of the Penn Central, they settled on David C. Bevan, Penn Central's Chairman of the Finance Committee and Chief Financial Officer from 1968-1970, as the chief culprit.  Penphil, the secret investment company Bevan headed purchased stock in the same companies as the railroad, with loans from Chemical Bank New York Trust Company.  1   But Bevan did not appear to be motivate by self-interest.  He came from a long tradition of Quakers, a sect which originated in Northern England among educated families during the civil war between the puritans and the Stuart royalists.  This was the industrialized area of England, and Quakers were drawn from the class of craftsmen and tradesmen involved in steel and other industry.  They acquired a reputation for honesty, which enhanced their standing in business, though they were alienated from society.  After the Restoration, Quakers were denied access to the usual professional, business and employment opportunities open to an educated and literate group. Their business acumen and meticulous record-keeping evolved into banking, and four out of five of the Banks in existence in England of the 17th century were of Quaker origin, including Barclays, Lloyds, Gurneys and Backhouses, all of which had close connections by marriage.
The State of Pennsylvania had been originally chartered as a colony by William Penn, a Quaker, who encouraged settlement by dissenters from established religions, thus attracting English Quakers, German Amish and Mennonites and French Huguenots.  Many of the English Quakers who came to Pennsylvania were connected to "banks" engaged in trade in the country districts of England, which were in turn connected to the City of London through correspondent accounts with bankers in Lombard Street and its vicinity.  The country banks just before 1900 amalgamated into Barclays Bank, a Quaker-owned bank. 2   For some reason Quaker businessmen seemed to have no moral aversion to the slave trade, as indicated in this quote from Capitalism and Slavery , by Dr. Eric Williams, who was a recognized historian and was also the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago:
"Quaker nonconformity did not extend to the slave trade. In 1756 there were eighty-four Quakers listed as members of the Company trading to Africa, among them the Barclay and the Baring families. Slave dealing was one of the most lucrative investments of English as of American Quakers, and the name of slaver, The Willing Quaker, reported from Boston at Sierra Leone in 1793, symbolizes the approval with which the slave trade was regarded in Quaker circles. The Quaker opposition to the slave trade came first and largely not from England but from America, and there from the small rural communities of the North, independent of slave labour. 'It is difficult', writes Dr. Gray, 'to avoid the assumption that opposition to the slave system was at the first confined to a group who gained no direct advantage from it, and consequently possessed an objective attitude.'...  3
This conflicted heritage is the essence of Pennsylvania.   Sons of these Quaker bankers had emigrated to America and were attracted to Pennsylvania.  David C. Bevan, who allegedly designed the consolidation that wrecked the Penn Central, came from this background.  Quaker immigrants created the first life insurance company in America (Presbyterian Ministers’ Fund)--in Philadelphia.  Insurance contracts were reinforced by bonds drawn by Benjamin Chew, Esq., one of the first of the "Philadelphia lawyers," who was not only named Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, but also built an estate called Cliveden, at 6401 Germantown Avenue in Philadelphia, in the mid 1760s.  It is likely that the name "Cliveden" was copied from the estate purchased in 1660 by the 2nd Duke of Buckingham, George Villiers, near London, which would be acquired many years later by the Astor family, who will be discussed later.  At the time Penn acquired his land from Charles II, Villiers was a member of the Privy Council, also known as the Committee for Foreign Affairs, five men from whose names the acronym "cabal" was said to have originated. 4
Quakers owned the company called the Free Society of Traders, which purchased 20,000 acres in Penn's colony for resale.  The founder and treasurer of this consortium was James Claypoole, whose descendants have been involved in Philadelphia ever since.  Many of the ships which transported settlers from England were owned by the Barclay family, who were also heavily involved in transporting slaves, despite the later reputation that Quakers acquired. 5    Management of the Presbyterian Ministers’ Fund came to include the Bevan family of Quakers, trustees in Barclays Bank for centuries. In fact, the American Bevan family began with Matthew L. Bevan, born in Pennsylvania in 1777 to a Quaker family. He became a Presbyterian in 1849, joining a church in Philadelphia pastored by Dr. Jacob Janeway, a Presbyterian Ministers’ Fund board member. This fund was created in 1761 in Philadelphia, roughly the same year the Equitable Assurance Society was created in London.  Matthew Bevan, a shipping merchant for the cotton handling firm of Bevan and Humphreys, which had contacts with Barings Bank of Liverpool,  was named president of the Presbyterian Ministers Fund and director on the board of the Insurance Company of North America.  An ICNA subsidiary was North America Land Company, created by Robert Morris, financier of the American Revolution.  A trustee was John Barclay, whose family in England were partners with the Bevans.  Another Philadelphia associate was Robert Ralston, shipping merchant in the China trade, director of the ICNA, and a founder and director of the Second Bank of the U.S. and of the Philadelphia Exchange. Ralston was therefore acquainted with fellow church member, Matthew L. Bevan, Presbyterian Corporation president in 1844, who liquidated the assets of the Second Bank of the U.S.  These men created the framework for Philadelphia's financial and corporate institutions which played a crucial role in the operation of the Pennsylvania Railroad. [Source:  Alexander Mackie, Facile Princeps: The Story of the Beginning of Life Insurance in America (Lancaster, Pa.: Lancaster Press, 1956).]
The Pennsylvania Railroad cannot be separated from the City of Philadelphia itself and from the historical institutions that are a part of that city.  Philadelphia was the first capital of the United States.  The chief financier of the American Revolution was Robert Morris, who had been born in the textile-trading port of Liverpool in 1734, and, after immigrating, moved from the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland to Philadelphia to serve as an apprentice to merchant Charles Willing, becoming a partner of Thomas Willing in 1754.  The firm became a contractor of a secret committee formed by the Continental Congress in 1775, to supply guns and ammunition for the war against the British.   The Americans received both military assistance and loans from the French, and the war ended with America owing $25 million in war debts it could not pay.  The French government would not extend any more credit and was concerned to have existing loans repaid.  Those loans were renegotiated at a higher rate of interest. Morris renegotiated one loan after another, since repudiation would have meant bankruptcy. 
Morris returned to Philadelphia, the Capital, and in 1781 was appointed Superintendent of Finance.  He also started the Bank of North America (forerunner to the First Bank of the U.S.), created by an act of Congress, capitalized at $400,000 initially, $70,000 of which was subscribed by individual investors.  Morris used $254,000 of the loan he obtained from France to subscribe the remaining shares to the government, making the U.S. government the principal stockholder. To repay the French loans, Morris proposed a land tax, a poll tax, an excise tax and a house tax to help generate revenue for paying debts, but the states would not agree.  On January 24, 1783, facing an impossible situation, Morris told Congress he would resign.  He returned to his shipping business.  Among other things, he pioneered the China trade: his ship Empress of China was believed to have been the first U.S. ship to trade with China.  He used his shipping fortune to buy land throughout the Union, and by 1795 had acquired over 6 million acres.  His aim was to promote the development of farms and towns; however, wars in Europe reduced the flow of immigrants.  The mortgages and taxes were more than he could pay.  Creditors had him arrested, and he was sentenced to Philadelphia debtor’s prison from 1798 to 1801.  Humiliated and broke, he died on May 7, 1806. 6 
The First Bank of the United States, chartered in 1791 by Alexander Hamilton to operate for the benefit of the new American anti-oligarchic system for which a revolution had just been waged, was destroyed by an opposing faction which plotted to murder Hamilton in 1804. The bank's charter did not expire until seven years after Hamilton's death, when it was liquidated and its branches sold to leading state banks.  By this time Thomas Jefferson had been elected President and put Albert Gallatin, a Swiss banker, in charge of Treasury--who attempted to reduce the debt,  by then $80 million.  Instead, in 1803 the debt increased by $15 million as a result of the purchase of Louisiana from France.  In 1802 Gallatin sold the government's stock in the First Bank of the U.S., which he was liquidating, to the House of Baring in London, using the funds received from Barings to pay an installment on the debt owed to the Dutch.  In this transaction, Barings was acting on behalf of Stephen Girard, who will be discussed shortly.  7
Also in 1802, one of the sons of First Baron Francis Baring (chairman of the British East India Company and founder of Barings Bank)  married a daughter of William Bingham, a Senator from Philadelphia.  Bingham's wife was the daughter of Robert Morris' partner, Thomas Willing, and the firm had appointed Bingham as its agent in Martinique during the revolutionary war to run the British blockade to smuggle guns and ammunition to the U.S. army.  Prior to the war Bingham had been British consul to Martinique, switching sides after independence was declared, thus amassing a huge personal fortune as a profiteer.  He returned to Philadelphia in 1780 and served as a director of the Bank of North America.  At his death in 1804 in Bath, England, he owned vast land holdings in the United States, including Maine and Pennsylvania, which were left in trust to his daughters--who married the second and third sons of Francis Baring, head of Barings Bank.  Anne Louise Bingham married Alexander Baring, first Baron Ashburton. Maria Matilda Bingham married Alexander’s Brother, Henry Baring of Cromer Hall. 8 
The Pennsylvania land owned by Bingham upon his death was in the northern counties of the state.  It was left to trustees--sons-in-law, Alexander Baring (afterwards Lord Ashburton) and Henry Baring, and three friends, Robert Gilmore, of Baltimore, and Thomas Mayne Willing and Charles Willing Hare, both of Philadelphia, who were eventually succeeded by Joseph Reed Ingersoll, and John Craig Miller, and three of Mr. Bingham's grandsons, William Bingham Baring (Lord Ashburton), Francis Baring, and Henry Bingham Baring.  Through this trust, therefore, the lands came under the management of Barings Bank, as well as other family connections of the trustees.  For example, The Willing family was related by marriage to the Astors, to White Russian royal émigré, Serge Obolensky, and to the Hare family, closely connected to the University of Pennsylvania. 9  
The Philadelphia trustees' relationship to Barings Bank also connects them to the Harvard-related opium smugglers.  Joshua Bates, a protégé of Newburyport, Mass. opium trader Thomas Handasyd Perkins, moved to London to work in the office of William Gray & Co., the largest ship-owners in America, by whom Bates was later sent to London in charge of their European business, and in 1826 entered into a partnership with Thomas Baring's son.  He joined Barings Bank two years later, eventually rising to head the bank.  Bates was married to the daughter of Samuel Sturgis, whose nephew Russell Sturgis went to work for the London bank in 1851 and also rose to head the bank.  The Sturgis family were heavily involved in the China opium trade and were intermarried with the Perkins clan, which would later merge with Russell & Co. (Click. Part 1 and Click. Part 2)Another Philadelphia connection comes from Henry Sturgis Drinker, connected to the eminent Philadelphia law firm, Drinker, Biddle & Reath, which represented the Pennsylvania Railroad.  The Sturgis family was also intermarried with the Ingersolls, connecting them to the Bingham trust and to Barings. 10
The  sister of Alexander and Henry Baring was Dorothy Elizabeth Baring, who married Rt. Hon. Henry Labouchere, first Baron Taunton, president of the British Board of Trade from 1839 to 1841, who will be mentioned again below.  The Baring family, after financing the opium wars for the British government, had increased their fortune in the slave trade before the American Civil War, in which they sided with the Southern cotton plantations.  The cotton and slave trade were the mercantile domain of the families who also ran the opium trade in the Orient, such as the Sutherlands and Mathesons.   The Barings also founded the Peninsular & Oriental Steamship Co. to transport the opium and became the largest foreign investor in American clipper ship production.
Another bank allied with Barings in the Civil War was the Baltimore firm of Alex. Brown & Sons, which had begun as a linen trader in Ireland.  One of Brown's sons, John A. Brown, had created a branch of their bank in Philadelphia in 1818, which a century later would merge with W.A. Harriman & Co.  Because of the importance of cotton to the Southern economy, the wealthy planters and merchants in the South, and the bankers who financed their trade, were very closely tied to Britain.  George H. Walker, who helped the Harrimans set up their investment bank, worked for his family, which owned Ely, Walker  & Company Dry Goods and Walker Textiles, which owned numerous cotton mills, as well as a shirt factory in Post, Texas, later sold to Burlington Industries.   More will be mentioned about Brown Brothers Harriman later in this article.
The First Bank of the United States, chartered by Alexander Hamilton in 1791 to operate for the benefit of the new American anti-oligarchic system for which a revolution had just been waged, was destroyed by an opposing faction allied to Aaron Burr (founder of the Manhattan Company, a "bank" that would later be controlled by the Warburgs) which plotted to murder Hamilton in 1804.  The bank's charter did not expire until seven years after Hamilton's death, when it was liquidated and its branches sold to leading state banks.  Much of the bank's stock had been purchased by Stephen Girard who immigrated to Philadelphia from Bordeaux, France.  Girard soon became Philadelphia’s major shipping merchant in the West India trade.  He had left ships and cargoes in France  which he wished to consolidate with his American holdings, but the embargo imposed by Jefferson prevented him from legally bringing back the ships and cargoes, forcing him to sell his assets in Europe.  He invested the proceeds in stock of the First Bank of the United States. The risk was that he could not be certain that the bank charter would be renewed, though the shares provided for a liquidation value.  Girard was assisted by an agent, who also employed his own agent, Baring Brothers, to purchase the shares for Girard's benefit once the proceeds had been transferred to London.  At that time, prior to 1812, Girard was Barings' largest client.  Girard also bought the building which housed the bank, and he reopened the bank under state charter as Girard's Bank. 
When the United States went to war against Great Britain in 1812, the war was financed by government bonds issued by the U.S. government and purchased by Girard.  After the war, Girard encouraged the charter for the Second Bank of the U.S. in 1816.  In 1823 Nicholas Biddle, who had been trained in France was appointed by President Monroe to head the bank.  According to author Eustace Mullins, James Rothschild of Paris was the principal investor in the bank, and in 1835 the House of Rothschild had become financial agent for the U.S. Government, replacing Barings. 11  When Girard died in 1831, he bequeathed to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania $300,000 and to the City of Philadelphia, cash and real estate amounting to over $6,000,000.  Girard's will was extremely detailed and lengthy; the bulk of his estate was for the establishment of "a permanent College."   Girard put his estate in the control of William J. Duane, who won a court battle to control the estate for the benefit of the public.  Another trustee was Thomas Pym Cope, a Quaker merchant engaged in shipping, whose wife was Mary Drinker.  A trust fund for Girard College was established, with Nicholas Biddle as Chairman of the Board. 
In 1837, Biddle, using Girard's funds, sent Alexander Dallas Bache to Europe for two years, to study European education.  Bache, age 25, and his cousin Franklin Bache were the leading descendants of Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia.  Alexander Bache had served in the Army Corps of Engineers for three years, teaching at West Point and helping construct Fort Adams in Newport, Rhode Island. From 1828, Bache was professor of natural philosophy and chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, until in 1836 Nicholas Biddle made him President of the projected Girard College and sent him to Europe.  Under German guidance, Bache headed a scientific and intellectual group whose goal was national development, with assistance from industrial leaders grouped around the Pennsylvania Railroad. In 1843, Bache was appointed Superintendent of the U.S. Coast Survey.  The circle of friends and colleagues with which Bache associated came to refer to themselves informally in the 1850's as the "Florentine Academy" and then the "Lazzaroni."   By the time of the Civil War, the Lazzaroni group dominated Harvard and Yale Universities, the U.S. Navy, and all American science.  (Florence, Italy had been the cradle of the European Renaissance--where the belief in universal education, and the creation of an enlightened society in which all mankind can share, was engendered.)
Meanwhile, the Second Bank being run by Nicholas Biddle was under attack.  The cry in 1831 had been that Biddle's Bank was "undemocratic," that it did not allow "private enterprise" and "the little man" room to participate in finance--a philosophy espoused by President Andrew Jackson, a tool of British bankers--Brown Brothers and Prime, Ward and King (agents for Barings, the bank which laundered the profits coming to the British government from the opium trade in China).  The bank would be totally destroyed by 1841, while the first Opium War was being fought in China, and the United States was gearing up for war against Mexico.   Nicholas Biddle died in 1844.  Once a person dies, of course, no matter how well he may design the legal framework to control the administration of the wealth he leaves behind, there are always vultures who can get around the spirit of the donor's legacy.  That is what happened in 1869 to the system Girard had supported with his bequests, as well as to his associates that fought for that system. 
The control of the Girard and other charitable trusts left to the City of Philadelphia, fell to a board appointed by the State of Pennsylvania by Act of Assembly of June 30, 1869.  Such boards can easily be controlled by men without integrity who are willing to bribe state officials or provide them with the funds to win elections.   A valuable research project would be to study the history of the Philadelphia City Trusts to see who has been appointed to sit on the board for the last 133 years. 12
By manipulating political and economic divisions within the United States, the European banking oligarchy--operating best through secret occult societies like Skull and Bones, the Rosicrucians, the Order of the Golden Dawn, and even the Scottish Rite and other forms of Freemasonry-- 13  embroiled these factions into the Civil War, resulting in economic devastation and a drastic need for capital to rebuild.  By purchasing the debt securities issued for reconstruction of destroyed infrastructure, the old banking families by 1870 had seized control of the American economic and political system.  Alexander Bache died in 1867.  Two years later his group of loyal Americans in Philadelphia, together with the institutions they operated on behalf of the American system--the universities, the Navy, and American science--would begin its decline when the management of the trust funds was captured.  Even the Biddle family would be targeted for control by a foreign-oriented faction when members of that family made ties by marriage with such notable families as the Drexels and the Dukes--who pursued a strong interest in eugenics and breeding--and who had investment ties with Europeans.  The American Philosophical Society (APS), originally founded by Benjamin Franklin, would eventually concern itself not with universal improvement of humanity, but with the same interest in genetic research that fascinated Hitler's scientists, evidenced by a major collection for the fascist American Eugenics Society at the APS historical website. 14  
Elite Philadelphia Families Tied to Global Agendas of Old World Wealth
The house of Drexel & Co. was founded in 1837 by Francis Martin Drexel, an Austrian, born in Dornbirn, Tyrol in western Austria near Switzerland and Liechtenstein, who arrived in the U.S. in 1817, one year before a branch of Brown Brothers opened in Philadelphia. Associated with him were his sons Francis Anthony, Anthony Joseph, and Joseph William. Francis Anthony Drexel, who married Emma Bouvier (the sister of John Bouvier, Jacqueline Kennedy's great grandfather), in 1863 became the senior member of the firm. 15  He forged an alliance in 1871 with Junius Morgan's son, J. Pierpont, to allow Drexel to tap into the lucrative European market for American bonds.  Drexel's place of birth was the province controlled by the German merchant prince family of Fugger, who built the Fuggerei "poor house" in Tirol, and whose wealth had enabled them to make large loans to the German king, Maximilian I. 16  It was the debts to the Fuggers that resulted in the British Crown's being given to William and Mary from Amsterdam, who chartered the Bank of England in 1694.  It is not known whether Drexel had connections to the descendants of this wealthy German family. The new firm--established in New York--became Drexel, Morgan & Co., and another firm, called Drexel, Harjes & Co., was in Paris.   Anthony married Ellen Roset  and had three sons and four daughters, one of whom, Emilie, married a Biddle.  In 1891 Anthony Drexel founded, and endowed with $2,000,000, the Drexel Institute of Art, Science and Industry in Philadelphia, now Drexel University, and died at Karlsbad, Germany, in 1893. 
Emilie Drexel Biddle's grandson, Andrew Joseph Drexel Biddle, Jr., after his first marriage to Mary Duke of the North Carolina tobacco family ended in divorce, married the daughter of William Boyce Thompson, a graduate of Phillips Exeter and Yale (also Skull and Bones), who controlled an American mining empire.  Thompson is a very important player in the story of the American International Corporation, discussed later in this article.  In his book, The Duchess of Windsor, Charles Higham mentions that the Duchess was a good friend of A.J. Drexel Biddle, Jr. and his wife, Margaret, having met with the Biddles on at least two occasions: (1) in 1940 aboard ship, when the Windsors left Portugal to take up the appointment as Governor of the Bahamas, where they entertained the Biddles and U.S. Ambassador to Italy William Phillips (of Massachusetts), at dinner; and (2) in 1951 the Windsors stayed with the Biddles in London while King George was having throat surgery. 
A.J. Drexel Biddle, Jr. was appointed as Ambassador to Poland in 1937, just as World War II began to break out, and fled from one place to another to avoid the invading German Army, ending up in Paris, where he also served as Deputy Ambassador to France.  It was in Paris that the Biddles became close friends with the Windsors, who stayed for a considerable length of time in the home of Baron Eugene Rothschild and his wife Kitty.  During that time, according to Charles Higham, their "greatest friend in Paris that year was Ambassador William Bullitt ...  a tacit Nazi sympathizer who was so fanatically bent upon war with Russia that he was prepared to support every kind of Fascist movement in Western Europe....He was a man after the Windsors' own heart.  He schemed against the popular front and collaborated with the so-called 200 Families, which in the words of George Seldes, 'turned out to be the French Fifth Column.' " (The Duchess of Windsor, p. 276).  From a reading of the various diplomatic communiqués, however, it appears that Bullitt was more motivated by financial and economic concerns than by mere politics. 17 
While serving as Ambassador to Moscow, Bullitt (from an "old," elite Philadelphia family) met Louise Bryant (they married in 1923), who had formerly been married to John Reed, organizer of the American Communist Party. 18 The Bullitts had one daughter, Anne Moen Bullitt, who according to Bullitt's listing in Who's Who 1954, married Nicholas Benjamin Duke Biddle, son of A.J. Drexel Biddle, Jr. and his wife Mary Duke (married 1915, divorced 1931), and a nephew of Doris Duke, heiress to American Tobacco Co., the Duke Power Co. and real estate investments.  It seems very strange, however, that the listing for A.J. Drexel Biddle, Jr. in the same volume of Who's Who does not mention his marriage to Mary Duke, nor the birth of any children.  Bullitt had married Ernesta Drinker in 1916, but they divorced in 1923 without children. A lawyer named William C. Bullitt, born in Bryn Mawr in 1946, is now a partner at Philadelphia's Drinker, Biddle & Reath in the personal and fiduciary law department, as well as being a board member for Philadelphia County.  He is not listed as the son of Ambassador Bullitt in the 1954 Who's Who19
Reed appears to have been a tool of the "left wing" forces of the Syndicate.  He went to Russia during the Bolshevik revolution as a reporter for a magazine owned by Harry Payne Whitney,  then a director of Guaranty Trust.   Harry's sister, Dorothy, married Thomas Lamont's protégé, Willard Straight, who re-negotiated loans for J.P. Morgan & Co. at Mukden in Russia and Manchuria the decade before the Russian revolution.  The Paynes were heirs of one of Rockefeller's partners in the Standard Oil trust.  Dorothy and Harry's brother, Payne Whitney and his wife Helen Hay, were the parents of Joan Whitney Payson and John Hay "Jock" Whitney--a graduate of Yale (Skull and Bones) and Oxford.  Jock, an investment banker and member of the syndicate we have described in earlier parts of this series,  was Ambassador to Great Britain from 1957 to 1961.  It is interesting as well to note that Lamont, while serving as a financial expert at the Versailles negotiations in 1919 had met Lord Robert Cecil, whom he later hosted in New York while Cecil and Philip Noel-Baker were promoting the League of Nations; Lamont was a member of the League of Nations Association and the Foreign Policy Association.  20
Bullitt was part of Col. House's delegation to the Paris Peace Conference, serving as chief of the division of current intelligence. He first visited Russia in 1919 at the behest of Col. House, to whom he sent reports back, and, after meeting with Lenin, he carried a proposal from the Bolsheviks to Versailles, by which Lenin agreed to confine Soviet rule to central Russia and to release claims to all outlying provinces.   When Wilson allowed Lenin's proposal to lapse, Bullitt resigned from the foreign service while denouncing the treaty.  Sigmund Freud, who co-authored a psychological biography of Wilson with Bullitt, considered this "the most important single decision that he [Wilson] made in Paris."  21   Bullitt returned to a diplomatic role when Roosevelt, secretly being advised by Col. House, made him special assistant to Secretary of State Cordell Hull.  He then served as the executive officer of the American delegation at the London Monetary and Economic Conference of 1933. In the fall of that year Bullitt was deeply involved in the negotiation of the Roosevelt-Litvinov Agreements, which established diplomatic ties between the United States and the Soviet Union. His appointment as the first ambassador to Moscow was announced immediately after the signing of the agreements.  He left Moscow in 1936 and became Ambassador to France from 1936-41.  From June 1942 to July 1943 Bullitt was a special assistant to the secretary of the navy.  In 1944 he joined the French army while retaining American citizenship, and was a foreign correspondent for Life magazine to report on conditions in Italy, which had just fallen to the Allied troops.  Bullitt placed a great importance on "the papacy as an institution and on the reigning pontiff."  22   
In 1941 A.J. Drexel Biddle, Jr. was named U.S. Ambassador to Belgium, Czechoslovakia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Greece, Luxembourg, and Yugoslavia, whose governments were in exile in London. This extraordinary posting was termed at the time the biggest and in some ways the most important diplomatic mission ever handled by a single envoy.  Biddle retired from the diplomatic corps in 1944 to resume active duty in the Army as a Lt. Colonel, rising to the rank of Brigadier General in 1951. During those years he worked closely with General Eisenhower as deputy chief of Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) and as a representative to United States European Command (EUCOM) and Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE). 23  The 1950s found Biddle serving as Adjutant General of the State of Pennsylvania, on numerous Pennsylvania state boards and commissions, and as a trustee at Temple University.  In 1961 President John F. Kennedy chose Biddle for his last diplomatic position, that of Ambassador to Spain, where he served until his death.  It is fascinating to note that between the years 1955 and 1968, the ambassadorship of Spain was held by a Lodge, a Forbes and two Biddles.  What could that signify?  The Forbes and Lodge families, through intermarriage with Cabots, long-standing trading partners with Spanish merchants, had been global merchants for centuries, involved in trade in both slaves and opium.  (Click. Part 1)  Spain became a fascist haven, along with Argentina, for many Nazis fleeing Germany at the close of World War II.  The Nazis had been allied with Catholics in Croatia, who turned to both the Swiss and to the Vatican to assist them in rescuing gold and other treasures looted from murdered Jews. 24   
Over several generations, the Drexel family have become very close to the British royal family, with John R. Drexel IV being currently the Chancellor of the American Society of the Most Venerable Order of St. John--formerly known as the Grand Priory in the British Realm of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, formed in 1831 by some French Knights of Malta, who intended to set up a non-Catholic priory in England.  This priory was designed along the lines of the German Bailiwick of Brandenburg and of a short-lived Russian Orthodox Grand Priory, which was in existence for a few years around 1800. The English priory was incorporated by royal charter from Queen Victoria in 1888.  Chancellor Drexel, who was installed by the Grand Priory (Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester, a cousin of Queen Elizabeth), is married to Noreen Stonor Drexel--from a fragment of English gentry and nobility which stubbornly maintained its Catholic faith through severe persecution during the Reformation. Their family's manor house located southeast of Oxford secretly conducted Catholic worship despite the prohibition.  Mrs. Drexel's nephew is the seventh Baron Camoys (Ralph Stonor), the first Catholic to serve as the Queen's chief of staff, or Lord Chamberlain, since the reign of Henry VIII. 25 
The Drexels are connected by marriage to the Astor family which was instrumental in combining the American and British elites into the Round Table group which administered the estates of Cecil Rhodes and Albert Beit, mentioned in Part Three.  William Waldorf Astor's wife was Mary Dahlgren Paul from Philadelphia.  The couple lived in Rome from 1882 to 1885 while Astor was US ambassador to Italy.  Mary Paul Astor's brother married her husband's sister. [Source:  John D. Gates, The Astor Family:  A Unique Exploration of One of America's First Families (Doubleday, 1981), p. 103]  Later generations of the Pauls reflect intermarriage with the Delano family--whose members are intermarried with Astors and Roosevelts.  This reaffirms the fact that there was a strong link between London and Philadelphia and that an alliance was created by these intermarried drug-running families. 26   
British Empire's Gold and Opium Profits Invested by Barings, Propped Up by
N.M. Rothschild, & Reinvested in Oil
Numerous authors have reported that John Jacob Astor made his first fortune in the fur trade, then in shipping, "competing with the Boston Brahmins for a lucrative slice of the infamous opium trade with China."  27  Profits were invested in New York City real estate.  Astor's grandson, William Waldorf Astor left New York, and with his fortune acquired the country estate known as Cliveden from the Duke of Westminster.  He gave this property to his son, Waldorf, upon his marriage in 1906 to Nancy Langhorne from Virginia.  The younger Astors became hosts at Cliveden for private discussions among intimate friends who had recently returned from the Union of South Africa, where they had been civil servants on the staff of Lord Milner, governor-general of South Africa, during 1897-1905. Milner's staff were recruited from Oxford University and from the experimental settlement house set up by his friends called Toynbee Hall in London.  Under Milner in South Africa, they were known as "Milner's Kindergarten," and were committed to creating a federally united commonwealth along the lines outlined in the trust created by Cecil Rhodes' will.  Rhodes, also a student at Oxford's Oriel College from 1873-81, was a devoted fan of John Ruskin (an Oxford lecturer who talked about fine arts, the empire and England's downtrodden masses--as moral issues), and with other disciples of Ruskin formed a secret society in 1881.   
Rhodes' biggest critic was M.P. Henry Labouchere, mentioned above, who owned the newspaper Truth, and whose parents were Peter Caesar Labouchere and Dorothy Elizabeth Baring, making him the cousin to the Philadelphia Binghams.  Henry’s brother, John Peter Labouchere, became a banker in a partnership formed in 1826 from an old established private bank in London.  After a merger with Glyn, Mills, this bank would become Williams & Glyn’s Bank (1970-1985), later The Royal Bank of Scotland (1985-86).  The Royal Bank has had longstanding ties to the investment entities that financed George Bush's early enterprises--Bush-Overbey and Zapata. (Click.) 
The Laboucheres were French Huguenots, who had lived in Amsterdam before settling in England. Their merchant father was a partner in the wealthy Amsterdam banking firm of Hope & Company, which had connections to the Scottish ancestor of the earls of Hopetoun, created marquesses of Linlithgow.  The seventh Earl, John Adrian Hope, was Lord Chamberlain to Queen Victoria. In about 1800, difficulties with Napoleon had led Hopes of Amsterdam to remove their base to London.  Henry Labouchere became a strong critic at the end of the century of Cecil Rhodes in South Africa at about the same time Barings Bank was failing as a result of its overextension in Argentina and Uruguay.   John  Labouchere took over his father's role as a banker with Hope & Co. of Amsterdam, which by 1814 had been wholly merged into Barings after first Baron Ashburton, a Bingham cousin, took an interest in it.  He later became a partner in the bank of Williams, Deacon, Thornton and Labouchere, which was taken over by the Royal Bank of Scotland in 1929. 28  
After the South American failure in 1890, Rothschilds negotiated on Barings’ behalf a gold loan of 3 million pounds sterling from the Bank of France against Treasury bills, and the Bank of England obtained half that sum from Russia to ensure that the gold reserve ratio would not be violated.  In 1906 and 1907, again faced with financial stringency, Barings once more obtained foreign assistance from the Bank of France and, this time, from the German Reichsbank. In 1909 and 1910 the Bank of France again discounted English bills, making gold available to London.   Although it was the end of Lord Revelstoke's career and the partnership was wound up, the bank survived as Baring Brothers & Co. Ltd, with a paid-up capital of 1 million [pounds sterling].  Since the individual partners were responsible for all its debts, all the Baring family assets had to be liquidated.  Barings as bankers survived, but had lost their nerve, resulting in a new demeanor which made Barings the perfect City of London representative of the British establishment.  John Baring, the second Lord Revelstoke, soon took his place on the court of the Bank of England - its board of non-executive directors - and became the closest financial adviser to George V, a link between the bank and the monarchy that would remain unbroken until Baring failed once again in 1995.
When the second Lord Revelstoke died in 1928, the succession at the bank was divided between an outsider, a Canadian named Edwin Peacock, and Edward Reid, a Revelstoke nephew. Caution by now had become a way of life. Reid and Peacock were both knighted for their loyalty to the City and to Barings.  Ever since 1891, the bank's equity capital had been held by a partnership of the bank's directors. When a director retired, his share passed to his successor. But if a partner were to die suddenly in office, his liability for death duties would mean a value had to be put on the shares, and ruinous death duties might force the dead director's estate to put his Barings shares on the market. Anyone might then buy them.  Cromer's solution was to give the directors voting shares that paid no dividends, and to transfer 74 per cent of the equity to the Baring Foundation, set up to carry out "good works".  In 1986 the remaining 26 per cent of the shares was also transferred to the foundation.  29
Empire Perpetuated by Rhodes Trust and Its American Sycophants--Set Up and Maintained in Philadelphia
The Astors' Cliveden Estate would become the centre of a network of highly influential individuals, all fired with the desire to do good in the world.  30  According to Elizabeth Langhorne, in Nancy Astor and Her Friends (Praiger Publishers, 1974), Nancy Astor "felt a religious element in the Round Table idea.  The ideal animating federation was the dream of brotherhood, of closer union between nations based on cooperation rather than on coercion....For both Astors the Round Table opened new vistas, new channels of action.  For the first time Nancy found excitement in foreign affairs."  (p. 48).   The author states that around 1909 the couple fell under the "spell" of Philip Kerr, who would later become Lord Lothian, who had himself "acquired a belief in federal union that virtually amounted to a religion."  Though Roman Catholic, Kerr later converted to Christian Science, Nancy's religion, after her prayers for his healing during a deadly illness. 
Another of Nancy's very close friends, with whom she corresponded for many years, was T.E. Lawrence, better known as Lawrence of Arabia, who was introduced to her by George Bernard Shaw, a frequent guest at Cliveden, who also was a Fabian Socialist and member of the "Bloomsbury Set." 31  Lawrence may well have been an agent secretly working for the Round Table Group, since he was so close to many of its members.  The Group may have had investments in the consortium that would become Aramco and would have needed one or more intelligence operatives to make sure the oil concession would be granted.  Another operative of the same group could have been Harry St. John Bridger Philby (1885-1960), who went to the Middle East during World War One as a member of the British Foreign Service and for 30 years was an adviser to King Ibn Saud.  Philby allegedly became disenchanted with the way Britain handled the Arabs and resigned in 1930, became a Muslim, and took the name of Hajj Abdullah.
Like Philip Kerr and Nancy Astor, Cecil Rhodes also had an intense fervor about the British Empire, which he had first acquired at Oxford, after hearing a speech by John Ruskin, which motivated him to become wealthy in Africa and donate all his assets to his dream of re-establishing the empire.  Rhodes wrote several wills, but the one which took effect at his death entrusted his estate to a board of trustees including the Earl of Rosebery (son-in-law of Lord Rothschild), Earl Grey, Lord Milner and Sir Leander Starr Jameson.  Settled in 1907, the estate was valued at almost 3.5 million pounds.  By 1924 the value had dropped to 2.276 million pounds, and at that point the investment portfolio was placed with Baring Brothers, who continued to administer the fund for many decades thereafter.  By the end of the 1995-96 financial year, the assets were valued at more than 145 million pounds.  Strangely, this is the year Barings Bank failed, allegedly because of the actions of Nick Leeson, but no mention is made of what happened to the trust fund.  This information was obtained from a website maintained by The Rhodes Trust, and the Indian Rhodes Scholarships Selection Committee. 32 
Examining these trustees will give you an eye-opening glimpse of today's British Empire.  For example, the Rhodes website mentions that the current trustees include:
(1) Lord Armstrong of Ilminster--a civil servant all his life who happens to served as "non-executive director" on boards of companies that are the epitome of the British Empire:   N.M. Rothschild & Sons Limited, the "Shell" Transport and Trading Company p.l.c., B.A.T. Industries p.l.c. and the RTZ Corporation PLC.
(2) Lord Sainsbury of Preston Candover--heir to the British grocery chain engaged mostly in overseeing funds set up to endow "the arts," in 1993 he also co-founded with Lord Rothschild the Butrint Foundation in the Balkan state of Albania.  Could it just be a coincidence that in 1993 Saudi Arabia happened to build a refugee camp for Bosnian Muslims in Albania?  Three years later the US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) detailed the Balkan Route in its annual report. By 1998, the DEA stated that Kosovo Albanians had become the second most important traffickers on the Balkan Route. Is this a coincidence, or is this the way the British Empire is really funded? 33

(3)  Sir Richard Southwood--Professor of Zoology at the University of Oxford and Chairman of the National Radiological Protection Board; previously Chairman of the Royal Commission [on] Environmental Pollution;  Vice-Chancellor Designate of Oxford University.  Southwood is supposedly a world expert on animal infection who headed the first Government inquiry into BSE in 1988, but who did not warn of the threat to humans until 1996.
(4)  Rt. Hon. William Waldegrave (now Lord Waldegrave of North Hill)--has worked at Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein, where he is a Managing Director in the Investment Banking Division, since 1998. He is also a non-executive Director of Bank of Ireland UK Holdings plc, Finsbury Life Sciences Investment Trust plc, Henry Sotheran Ltd, and Waldegrave Farms Ltd.  Chairman of the National Museum of Science and Industry and  Chairman elect of the Rhodes Trust; Chairman of the Bristol Cathedral Trust; a Trustee of the Beit Memorial Fellowships for Medical Research and a Council Member of the Institute of Contemporary British History, University of London. He is Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford.
(5)  Dr. Colin Lucas--born in 1940 at Cairo, Egypt, he did his undergraduate and postgraduate work at Lincoln College, Oxford. He was a Fellow and Tutor in Modern History at Balliol College, Oxford (1973-90) and Professor of History and then Dean of the Division of the Social Sciences at the University of Chicago (1990-94). He became Master of Balliol College in 1994 and is currently Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford (1997-2004). He has also been a Visiting Professor at the University of Lyon-II, Indiana University and Cornell University. His field is history, specifically the French revolution, and his major interest is terror--revolutionary and popular violence, the causes of revolution and practices of democratic politics in situations of stress.
(6)  Professor Robert O'Neill--"eminent Australian strategic thinker" who is Chichele Professor of the History of War at All Souls College, Oxford University. He was a member of the 1996 Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons, along with Professor Joseph Rotblat, the winner of the 1995 Nobel Prize for Peace,  Michel Rocard, the former Prime Minister of France,  Robert McNamara, the former United States Defense Secretary and President of the World Bank, General George Butler, the former Commander of the United States Strategic Air Command, Dr. Maj. Britt Theorin, former President of the International Peace Bureau, Field Marshal the Lord Carver, the former Chief of the British Defence Staff.
The information set out with reference to the above trustees was gleaned from a cursory internet search, which anyone can do.  For that reason, no sources are shown.  These men are idealists in the mold of the original Round Table.  The best source about the Round Table is Professor Carroll Quigley, whose two books about the group, THE ANGLO-AMERICAN ESTABLISHMENT and TRAGEDY AND HOPE can still be found.  The following is an excerpt from Tragedy and Hope 
The Round Table Groups were semi-secret discussion and lobbying groups organized by Lionel Curtis, Philip H. Kerr (Lord Lothian), and (Sir) William S. Marris in 1908-1911.  This was done on behalf of Lord Milner, the dominant Trustee of the Rhodes Trust in the two decades 1905-1925.  The leaders of this group were: Milner, until his death in 1915, followed by Curtis (1872-1955), Robert H. (Lord) Brand -- brother-in-law of Lady Astor -- until his death in 1963, and Adam D. Marris, son of Sir William and Brand's successor as managing director of Lazard Brothers bank. The original intention had been to have collegial leadership, but Milner was too secretive and headstrong to share the role.  After Milner's death in 1925, the leadership was largely shared by the survivors of Milner's 'Kindergarten', that is, the group of young Oxford men whom he used as civil servants in his reconstruction of South Africa in 1901-1910.  The original purpose of these groups was to seek to federate the English-speaking world along lines laid down by Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) and William T. Stead, (1840-1912), and the money for the organizational work came originally from the Rhodes Trust.  Money for the widely ramified activities of this organization came originally from the associates and followers of Cecil Rhodes, chiefly from the Rhodes Trust itself, and from wealthy associates such as the Beit brothers, from Sir Abe Bailey, and (after 1915) from the Astor family. 
Since 1925 there have been substantial contributions from wealthy individuals and from foundations and firms associated with the international banking fraternity, especially the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust, and other organizations associated with J.P. Morgan, the Rockefeller and Whitney families, and the associates of Lazard Brothers and of Morgan, Grenfell, and Company.  The chief backbone of this organization grew up along the already existing financial cooperation running from the Morgan Bank in New York to a group of international financiers in London led by Lazard Brothers.  Milner himself in 1901 had refused an offer, worth up to 100,000 a year, to become one of the three partners of the Morgan Bank in London, in succession to the younger J.P. Morgan who moved from London to join his father in New York (eventually the vacancy went to E.C. Grenfell, so that the London affiliate of Morgan became known as Morgan, Grenfell, and Company). "

Instead, Milner became director of a number of public banks, chiefly the London Joint Stock Bank [which was the London agent for currency boards in the British colonies and for chartered companies like the British East India Company.  This London bank also acted for many years, after 1877, as a lender, as well as London disbursement agent for the Pennsylvania Railroad, though the railroad hired a general agent to live in London to deal with shareholders there. The bank subsequently merged with Midland Bank and more recently with the Hong Kong Shanghai Bank--both of which have long been involved in laundering of opium profits. 34 ]

He became one of the greatest political and financial powers in England, with his disciples strategically placed throughout England in significant places, such as the editorship of The Times, the editorship of The Observer, the managing directorship of Lazard Brothers, various administrative posts, and even Cabinet positions. At the end of the war of 1914, it became clear that the organization of this system had to be greatly extended.  Once again the task was entrusted to Lionel Curtis who established, in England and each dominion, a front organization to the existing local Round Table Group. This front organization, called the Royal Institute of International Affairs, had as its nucleus in each area the existing submerged Round Table Group.  In New York it was known as the Council on Foreign Relations and was a front for J.P. Morgan and Company in association with the very small American Round Table Group.  The American organizers were dominated by the large number of Morgan "experts", including Thomas Lamont and Louis Beer, who had gone to the Paris Peace Conference and there became close friends with the similar group of English "experts" which had been recruited by the Milner group.   In fact, the original plans for the Royal Institute of International Affairs and the Council on Foreign Relations were drawn up at Paris.  Closely allied with this Morgan influence were a small group of Wall Street law firms, whose chief figures were Elihu Root, John W. Davis, Paul D. Cravath, Russell Leffingwell, the Dulles brothers and, more recently, Arthur H. Dean, Philip D. Reed, and John J. McCloy.  Other non-legal agents of Morgan included men like Owen D. Young and Norman H. Davis.  In England the center was the Round Table Group, while in the United States it was J.P. Morgan and Company or its local branches in Boston, Philadelphia, and Cleveland....

One of the most interesting members of this Anglo-American power structure was Jerome D. Greene (1874-1959).  Born in Japan of missionary parents, Greene graduated from Harvard's college and law school by 1899 and became secretary to Harvard's president and to Harvard Corporation in 1901-1910. This gave him contacts with Wall Street which made him general manager of the Rockefeller Institute (1910-1912), assistant to John D. Rockefeller in philanthropic work for two years, then trustee to the Rockefeller Institute, to the Rockefeller Foundation, and to the Rockefeller General Education Board until 1939. For fifteen years (1917-1932) he was with the Boston investment banking firm of Lee, Higginson, and Company [a Harvard-connected money-laundering bank involved in the China opium trade], most of the period as its chief officer, as well as with its London branch.  As executive secretary of the American section of the Allied Maritime Transport Council, stationed in London in 1918, he lived in Toynbee Hall, the world's first settlement house, which had been founded by Alfred Milner and his friends in 1884. 35

Wolves in Sheep's Wool

The problem with idealistic do-gooders is that "feeling" good and "appearing" good are often more important to them than actually "being" good.  Were that not true, such people would have difficulty rationalizing the fact that the money they are using to do good works comes from tainted sources.  Whether they never question the source of the funds they administer, or whether they know and yet tell themselves the end justifies the means, it makes no real difference.  The fact remains that they cover up the truth about how money works in the world, and they do so to allow themselves to believe that, by using the money, they have a part in bringing about peace and justice and in helping the "ignorant masses of humanity" to have a better life.  It is the utmost in arrogance and conceit.  It perpetuates the most abominable evil--what M. Scott Peck labels "People of the Lie". 36   By all appearances, the intentions of the bureaucrats and administrators who work for the one-worlders are good.  They claim to believe in world peace, the ability to negotiate and arbitrate international disputes, and they espouse a belief in education and medical research to improve the station of all mankind.  However, the original designers of the system, even before Milner set up his kindergarten in South Africa, were in Venice where John Ruskin spent so much time.  By the 13th Century, Venice was governed by an oligarchy, controlled by wealthy families who had made treaties with the Saracens, thus forming a link between the east and Europe and becoming the greatest commercial center for trade and banking until 1797 when the Republic of Venice was conquered by Napoleon Bonaparte and became part of the Hapsburg Empire until Italy was united by Garibaldi.  But through it all, the wealthy families remained, and Ruskin was their disciple. 

With all the funds placed at their disposal, the Rhodes trustees made many mistakes for which they took no responsibility.  They guided the Paris Peace Conference and the Versailles Treaty of 1919 , which required Germany to pay impossible reparations for damages caused to Europe.  By punishing Germany financially, conditions were created which led to the rise of Hitler, who was funded by the same network. The treaty also increased tension in the Middle East by the manner in which it partitioned the Ottoman Empire, which was dismantled because of Turkey's alliance with Germany during the war.  The announcement of the Balfour Declaration was made to Lord Rothschild in 1917 as a "declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations" and a statement that the British Government would endeavor to "facilitate" the achievement of this object.  Arthur James Balfour, who signed the declaration, was not only an active member of the Round Table Group, he was the nephew of  British statesman Lord Robert Cecil, and succeeded Cecil as Prime Minister in 1902.  British Foreign Minister during World War I, he was a member of the British delegation at the signing of the Treaty.  According to Professor Carroll Quigley, the "Cecil Bloc"  was a nexus of political and social power formed by Lord Salisbury and extending from the great sphere of politics into the fields of education and publicity."  The Cecil family was allied by marriage with many other powerful British titles, such as Viscounts Cobham, Barons Leconfield, Dukes of Westminster, Earls Selborne and Viscounts Wolmer, Dukes of Devonshire and Marquesses of Hartington, and Earls of Cranbrook.  According to Quigley, the Cecil influence has been "all-pervasive in British life since 1886." 37    But the Cecils were influential long before 1886.  In 1874 Salisbury was Benjamin Disraeli's Secretary for India and became Foreign Secretary four years later.  The British Crown Government had taken over the role of the East India Company when its charter dissolved in 1858, so it would appear Salisbury's duties would have included the overseeing of the opium traffic there.  We can only wonder whether a significant part of the plan of the "Cecil Bloc," and the Milner Group bureaucracy which stemmed from it, may have been a brilliant scheme devised to launder the profits coming from the opium trade through South Africa's mines (sort of like Ollie North's "neat idea" of diverting Iranian arms sales proceeds  to the Contras).

Their "Peace Plan" Leads to War
The staff on the British team at the Paris Peace Conference included Lord Lothian (Philip Kerr, 1882-1940), Private Secretary to Prime Minister Lloyd George from 1917 to 1921, and in 1939 British ambassador in Washington where he secured American assistance for the British prior to U.S. entry in World War II; Sir Maurice Hankey, secretary to the Cabinet and also to the British Empire Delegation; and T.E. Lawrence, mentioned earlier, who argued on behalf of Arab independence.  Jan Smuts, a member of the South African parliament in 1907, who served two terms as Prime Minister (1919-24 and 1939-48) and Chancellor of Cambridge University (1948-50), also played an important role.  They worked tirelessly to promote adoption of the League of Nations.  The American team, called "the Inquiry," was headed by Colonel E.M. House and included James Thomson Shotwell, Canadian-born history professor at Columbia, who served as director of the division of economics and history (1942–49) and president (1949–50) of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and served as chairman (1932–43) of the American committee on International Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations.  Other members of the group were Frank Aydetlotte, George Louis Beer, Whitney Shepardson, Thomas W. Lamont, Jerome D. Green, Erwin D. Canham, Walter Lippmann and Isaiah Bowman.   38
Whose Money Is It Anyway?
During this era, another director of the Rhodes trust, as well as a director of the Bank of England, was Sir Edward Peacock, a Canadian, who had headed Dominion Securities--one of the companies mentioned in Part Two-B of this series as being involved in the Syndicate with Minor Cooper Keith of the Empire Trust, and with the Boston Brahmin opium families who funded Harvard.  Peacock became a partner in Barings Bank, which necessitated his resigning from the Bank of England because two principals of the same financial house could not be on the board. When Barings' Lord Revelstoke died in 1929, Peacock returned to the board of the Bank of England. In the meantime, he had become the European director of the Canadian Pacific Railway and a bit later a director of the Hudson's Bay Company, both of which are intertwined with London banks.  The railroad which spanned Canada was viewed as a quicker route to the East Indies, and which was actually a means of access to opium sources and for distribution, which proceeds laundered through Canada's banking system. 39  Peacock also served as Receiver General to the Duchy of Cornwall, which means that he oversaw the finances of the royal family, particularly the heir apparent. It was for those services that he was knighted in 1934. During World War II, Peacock served in Washington as liaison between the Bank of England and the U.S. government.  The Queen honored him with an LLD in 1949.  Viscount Monckton, the legal adviser of the Duchy, and Sir Edward controlled the financial and legal arrangements for the Abdication of King Edward VIII when he chose to marry Mrs. Wallis Simpson. 40
In 1940, after the Duke and Duchess of Windsor (as mentioned in Part Four) had fled the Nazi invasion of Paris and settled in The Bahamas, they obtained permission to meet in Miami with Peacock to privately discuss "financial matters."  At that time Peacock was head of British Purchasing Commission, which was under surveillance of both British and American intelligence, as the Bank of England had three directors who were partners in the Bank for International Settlements in Basle, Switzerland--the board of which included Walter Funk, president of the Reichbank.  Peacock was also involved in financing electric and railway companies in Brazil and Mexico.  These Brazilian companies would later become part of the Brascan empire, later controlled by same Bronfmans involved in Trizec.  Brascan has been historically very closely connected to British intelligence and to the Round Table offshoots. 41  
From Cutthroat Competition to Charity to World Government
Professor Quigley states that the Rhodes Trust controlled huge amounts of capital which the trustees had the obligation to invest for the purposes set out in the Rhodes Will, including "the extension of British rule throughout the world ...[and] the ultimate recovery of the United States of America as an integral part of a British Empire."   Such purposes required the utmost secrecy.  Investments would have been made through secret nominees with the aim of acquiring control of the most strategic facets of American resources.  It is also likely that loans were made to finance new business, especially in the United States, on the condition that the borrower would agree to set up a charitable foundation upon his death or retirement.  The assets of the foundation would then be placed in the hands of trustees approved by the Rhodes group, who would administer the trust in accordance with the goals set out by Rhodes in his Will.  Rhodes wrote his first Will in 1877, so we know his goal was already in the working stages by those at Oxford who motivated him at the time.  The ultimate trustees were also close to Oxford, having been ingrained with the same devotion to the perpetuation of the Empire, through chartered companies like Rhodes' British South Africa Company and like Hudson's Bay Company (see footnote 36), which returned a high percentage of profit to the British Government. 
They already had their eye on the oil that had been discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859.  According to Eustace Mullins,  the Rothschilds banks, which controlled 95% of American railroads through their agents, sent Jacob Schiff of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. to John D. Rockefeller, who had ruthlessly acquired control of 95% of American oil refineries.  They worked out an elaborate rebate deal for Rockefeller, through a dummy corporation, South Improvement Company.  These rebates ensured that no other oil company could survive in competition with the Rockefeller firm.  42
As it turns out, South Improvement Co. was a holding company scheme designed in 1871 by Pennsylvania Railroad magnate, Thomas A. Scott.  South Improvement Company was a secret alliance between the railroads and a select group of large refiners aimed at stopping "destructive" price-cutting and restoring freight charges to a profitable level.  According to the pact, the railroads would raise their rates, but would agree to pay rebates to Rockefeller and other large refiners, thus securing their steady business. In addition, the latter were to receive the proceeds of the "drawbacks" levied on nonmembers, who as a result would end up paying much higher prices for their shipments of oil.  In April of 1872, the South Improvement Company's charter was repealed by the Pennsylvania legislature before it had even conducted a single transaction.   Eager to consolidate the refining industry, Rockefeller set out to eliminate what he called "ruinous" competition from his most immediate rivals. In less than six weeks, between February and March of 1872, he used the threat of the big new alliance and a sophisticated range of tactics to buy up 22 of his 26 Cleveland competitors.  43
Scott was first-vice-president of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in 1860, and served as president from 1874 until 1880.  Scott's allies pushed through the Pennsylvania state legislature a series of bills creating the nation's first pure holding companies--two of which were the Pennsylvania Company and the Southern Railway Security Company.  The Southern Railway Security Company held the stock of the southern feeder route for the Pennsylvania that Scott envisioned, to stretch from Washington, D.C. to the Mississippi River. The company had been purchased from James Roosevelt (FDR's father) in 1873--just seven years before Roosevelt married into the Delano family of "former" opium traders. 
Scott's assistant until 1865 was Andrew Carnegie, who left the Pennsylvania Railroad to start his own company, but who kept his ties to the railroad.  In 1875 Carnegie founded his first steel plant, the Edgar Thomson Works, in Braddock, Pennsylvania. The plant was named for the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, which was his first customer; he made 2000 steel rails for the Pennsylvania Railroad.  In 1901 Carnegie sold his entire company to J.P. Morgan for $480 million, allowing Morgan to create US Steel.  Morgan would have been acting in this transaction as an agent, but we do not know whose money he used for the purchase.  With his proceeds from the sale Carnegie established the Carnegie Institution to provide research for American colleges and universities. 
The first president of the institution was Daniel Coit Gilman, trained at Norwich Academy, who had entered Yale in 1848, forming an intimate friendship with his fellow student, Andrew Dickson White.  In 1852, Gilman studied for a few months at Harvard College, living in the home of Prof. Arnold Guyot, a Swiss national educated in Berlin.  Gilman and White sailed the following year to Europe as attachés of the American legation at St. Petersburg, Russia; he also spent the winter of 1855 in Germany.  For the next seventeen years, his life revolved around Yale. According to Antony Sutton, Gilman's first task in 1856 was to incorporate Skull & Bones as a legal entity under the name of The Russell Trust. Gilman became Treasurer and William H. Russell, the co-founder, became President.  William H. Russell received permission to form a chapter of the German secret society, while he was studying for a year in Germany. Russell and Alphonso Taft, the father of president Taft, set up the chapter in 1832. 44  Gilman became president of the University of California in 1872, then of Johns Hopkins in Baltimore in 1875, but soon received a shock when the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad suspended dividends on the common stock, which formed the bulk of the endowment. Gilman remained in Baltimore until the 1890s.  It is interesting to note that the B&O was largely financed initially by Barings Bank, which issued 6% bonds worth 1 million pounds sterling before 1880.  The B&O also sold 2 million pounds of its securities through J.S. Morgan's London office and almost that many more at a reduced price a few years later--still before 1880.  Most of the B&O creditors, therefore, were British, and they demanded that the interest on the bonds be guaranteed by Barings and Morgan. 45 
A partial list of notable trustees of the Carnegie Institute reveals men with backgrounds in education, banking and diplomacy--closely connected to Harvard, Yale and the opium trade:

Robert O. Anderson, 1976–1983; Robert S. Brookings, 1910–1929; Vannevar Bush, 1958–1971; Frederic A. Delano, 1927–1949; Cleveland H. Dodge, 1903–1923; Simon Flexner, 1910–1914; W. Cameron Forbes, 1920–1955; James Forrestal, 1948–1949; Hanna H. Gray, 1974–1978; Henry L. Higginson, 1902–1919; Ethan A. Hitchcock, 1902–1909; Herbert Hoover, 1920–1949; Henry Cabot Lodge, 1914–1924; Alfred L. Loomis, 1934–1973; Robert A. Lovett, 1948–1971; Seth Low, 1902–1916; Andrew W. Mellon, 1924–1937; William W. Morrow, 1902–1929; Walter H. Page, 1971–1979; James Parmelee, 1917–1931; William Barclay Parsons, 1907–1932; John J. Pershing, 1930–1943; David Rockefeller, 1952–1956; Elihu Root, 1902–1937; Elihu Root, Jr., 1937–1967; William H. Taft, 1906–1915; William S. Thayer, 1929–1932; Juan T. Trippe, 1944–1981; Andrew D. White, 1902–1916.

Robert O. Anderson listed above is the man discussed in Part 2 and Part 4 of this series.  He worked most of his career for an oil company that was originally part of the Standard Oil Trust; then he bought the London Observer from the son of Nancy Astor, later selling it to Lonrho, which controlled the assets of Cecil Rhodes' former British South Africa Co.   He also served as a conduit for the transfer of stock of the former Pauley Petroleum to Lonrho.
In 1905 the Carnegie Teachers' Pension Fund was established with a $10,000,000 endowment from Carnegie.  In 1910 he created the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and the following year he put all his remaining fortune into the Carnegie Corporation.  In 1913 the Peace Palace, financed by Carnegie, opened in the Hague. During the interwar period, the Endowment revitalized efforts to promote international conciliation, financed reconstruction projects in Europe, supported the work of other organizations, and founded the Academy of International Law at The Hague.  46

Original Trustees of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1910)*

Robert Somers Brookings (22 Jan 1850-15 Nov 1932) (1910-1932). Toured Europe (1880). President, Corporation of Washington University (1897-1928). Partner, Cupples and Mastron (St. Louis). Organized St. Louis World's Fair (1904). Chairman, Price Fixing Committee, War Industries Board. Accompanied Carnegie on peace visit to the Kaiser prior to WWI. Consultant to Commission on Economy and Efficiency (Taft Administration). Founder and VC, Institute for Government Research (3-25-1916). Began Institute of Economics (6-1922) (got $1.65 million from the Carnegie Corporation). Incorporated Robert S. Brookings School of Economics and Government (1924). Eponym of Brookings Institution (consolidated in 1927). Chairman, Brookings Institution (7-1-1928). Timber and Mining interests. Married Isabel Valle (1927). She pledged $350,000 for Robert Brookings Graduate School of Economics and Government (1924).

Thomas Burke (1910-1925)

Nicholas Murray Butler (2 Apr 1862-7 Dec 1947) (1910- ) Student in Berlin and Paris. Doctoral thesis was "The History of Logical Doctrine." J.P. Morgan mouthpiece in academic world. Head of American branch of Association for International Conciliation (1906) (parent was located in Paris). President, Columbia University (1902-1945). Republican VP candidate (1912). President, CEIP (1925-1945). Director, New York Life Ins. Co. (1929-1939). Nobel Prize in Peace (1931) with Jane Addams (for Kellogg-Briand Pact). Trustee, The Carnegie Foundation for Advancement of Teach (3-10-1906). Married Susanna Edwards Schuyler (7 Feb 1877) (daughter of Jacob Rutzan Schuyler). Daughter: Sarah Schuyler Butler.

John L. Cadwalder (1910-1914) Lawyer. A founder of the Metropolitan Club (2-20-1891); Governor. Member, Union Club.

Joseph A. Choate (1910-1917)

Cleveland Hoadley Dodge (26 Jan 1860-24 Jun 1926) (M$T1912) (1) (1910-1919) Original Trustee, Russell Sage Foundation (4-11-1907). Wilson intimate. Original Trustee, Institute for Government Research (IGR) (late 1915). VP, Phelps Dodge Corporation. NY 2001 Society. National City Company (1st securities affiliate) (illegal according to A.G. opinion suppressed by President Taft). Owned 2,500 shares of National City Bank of New York (1-22-1913); Director (1917-1918 Period). Winchester Arms Co., Union Metallic Cartridges, Remington Arms Co., Atlantic Mutual Ins. Co., National City Bank and Kuhn Loeb & Co. married Grace Parish (11 Oct 1883).

Charles William Eliot (1910-1919) -- Educated in Germany. Original Trustee, Institute for Government Research (IGR) (late 1915). 21st President Emeritus, Harvard University (1869-1909). Incorporator, Rockefeller Foundation (1913); Trustee (1914-1917). Member of the Lyman family (like Henry Pratt Johnson). Married Ellen Peabody. Nephew of George Ticknor.

Arthur William Foster (1910-1925)

John Watson Foster (1910-1917) -- Father of the mother of the Dulles Brothers. University of Indiana (B.A. 1855), where he developed the anti-slavery convictions implanted by his father; Harvard Law School; law practice in Cincinnati and Evansville, Indiana.  In 1872, he served as chairman of the Republican state committee, working toward re-election of Oliver P. Morton to the United States Senate and of Gen. Grant to the presidency. Appointed by Grant as minister to Mexico. Transferred in 1880 to St. Petersburg, Russia, where he pled for leniency in the treatment of American Jews.  Minister to Spain, 1883. Secretary of State (1892-1893). Served after the Chino-Japanese War, December 1894, at the request of the Chinese foreign office with the Chinese commissioners in the negotiation of peace with Japan. In 1907, represented China at the Second Hague Conference.

Austen George Fox (1910-1937) -- Officer of the "Brandeis" Celebration of June 25, 1895, Harvard University School of Law.

Robert A. Franks (1910-1935) Trustee, The Carnegie Foundation for Advancement of Teaching (3-10-1906).

William M. Howard (1910-1930), of Georgia, father of W.M. Howard, Jr. who was a graduate of Morehouse College and a mentor to Martin Luther King, Jr. Howard, Jr. received his master of divinity degree in 1972 from Princeton Theological Seminary in Princeton, New Jersey and became the executive director of the African American Council for the Reformed Church in America. He was moderator of the Third World Peoples Conference on Development, and served as Chair, Commission on Justice, Liberation and Human Fulfillment from 1974 to 1978.  He was active in the World Council of Churches, founded in the Netherlands in 1948 as an international fellowship of more than 330 churches, denominations, and fellowships in 100 countries and territories throughout the world with about 400 million Christians as members. It was formed to serve and advance the ecumenical movement. (John Foster Dulles was involved in the Federal Council of Churches, which in 1947 adopted the following resolution:  "We believe that the ultimate goal for World Organization should be Federal World Government. The success of the United Nations is an important step toward this end." (Click.)

Samuel Mather (1910-1919) Son of Samuel Livingston Mather (Co-Founder of Pickands Mather). Lawyer. Founder of the Cleveland Iron Mining Co. and Iron Cliffs Mining Co. (became the Cleveland Cliffs Iron Mining Co.). Trustee, Brookings Institute (7-1-1928). Original Trustee, Institute for Government Research (IGR) (late 1915). Original Trustee, Institute of Economics (4-21-1922). Married Flora Amelia Stone, youngest daughter of Amasa Stone and only sister of Mrs. John Hay.  Member of the National Council of the Episcopal Church.

Andrew J. Montague (1910-1937), Virginia politician

George Walbridge Perkins (31 Jan 1862-18 Jun 1920) (MIT 1912)(1910-1920) U.S. Financier. Clerk, New York Life Insurance Co.; Chairman of the Finance Committee (1898); VP (1903). Chairman, National Executive Committee, Progressive Party. Partner, J.P. Morgan (1900) (also Drexel, Morgan & Co. of Philadelphia and Morgan, Harjes & Co. of Paris) (resigned 1910). Owned 1,240 shares in Bankers Trust Co. Director and member of the finance committee, U.S. Steel Corp. Director: International Harvester Corporation, German-American Insurance Co. and German Alliance Insurance Co., New York Trust Co., etc. Married Evelina Ball (daughter of Flamen Ball). Children: George Walbridge Perkins, Jr. (1895-1960) (U.S. Ambassador to NATO, 1955-1957) and Dorothy Perkins.

Henry S. Pritchett (1910-1939) Suggested idea to Andrew Carnegie that he support a free, noncontributory pension fund for college faculty (1904). Trustee, The Carnegie Foundation for Advancement of Teaching (3-10-1906); President (1905-1929). Approved $1.65 million grant to found the Institute of Economics. President, M.I.T. (1904). Manager, Franklin Fund of Boston (1904). Director, American International Corporation, (1917-1918 Period ?). President, Carnegie Corporation of New York (1921-1923).

Elihu Root (15 Feb 1845-7 Feb 1937) (CFR21) (1910-1937) -- Lawyer/Diplomat/Politician. Member, Metropolitan Club. U.S. District Attorney for Southern District NYC (1883-1885). Secretary of War (1899-1904). Hired Henry Lewis Stimson (S&B) out of law school. Secretary of State (1905-1909). Legal adviser to Theodore Roosevelt. Senator from New York (1909- 1915). Gentlemen's Agreement with Japan (1908).  President, CEIP (1910-1925). President, American Bar Association (1915-1916). Honorary President, Council on Foreign Relations (1921- ). Nobel Peace Prize (1912). Leader in movement for world peace. Trustee, Institute for Government Research (IGR). NY Social Register. Century Association. Honorary President, American law institute (1923-1937). Son: Elihu Root, Jr. (Director: AT&T and Mutual Life Insurance Co. 12-16-1928-1939).

Jacob G. Schmidlapp (1910-1919), former president of the Fifth Third Bank of Cincinnati, who set up a family foundation in 1907.

James Brown Scott (1910- ),  born in  Ontario, Canada.  In 1876 the family settled in Philadelphia,  graduate of Central High School (1887).  Harvard,  1890. After studying international law at Harvard and at the universities of Berlin, Heidelberg, and Paris, he earned the degree of Doctor of Civil and Canon Laws from Heidelberg in 1894. Organized Los Angeles Law School 1896 (later incorporated into the University of Southern California. University of Illinois College of Law, dean, 1899-1903. Professor of law, Columbia University, 1903.   1st President, American Society for the Judicial Settlement of International Disputes (1906).  Scott accompanied the American delegation to the Second Hague Peace Conference and subsequently prepared a massive two-volume text and documents, The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907 (1909). He also participated in discussions which resulted in the formation in 1906 of the American Society of International Law, of which Elihu Root was the first president. Dedicated to the idea of an international legal system, Scott devoted considerable energy to the society, serving as its secretary (1906-24). He and Root were also associated in the establishment of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in 1910. Scott resigned his State Department post in March 1911 to become the Endowment's permanent secretary and the director of its Division of International Law, positions he held until 1940. Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Washington Conference of 1921-22, and the Sixth Pan-American Conference in 1928. Scott's special ideal, however, was an international court of justice. Adviser at The Hague in 1920 where a committee of jurists drafted plans for the Permanent Court of International Justice.  Member, Union Club.

James L. Slayden (1910-1924) U.S. Representative (San Antonio, Texas). Called for a world court.

Albert K. Smiley (1910-1912)--Haverford College, 1849; remained at Haverford as instructor in English and mathematics until 1853; established an English and classical academy in Philadelphia.  In 1860 he went to Friends' School in Providence, R. I., and as teacher and principal remained until 1879.  In 1879  appointed to the Board of Indian Commissioners by President Hayes. In 1889  appointed by the Secretary of the Interior to serve as chairman of a commission delegated to select reservations for the Mission Indians of California.  He served as a trustee of Brown University, Bryn Mawr College, and Pomona College, and at the time of his death was president of the board of trustees of the New York State Normal School at New Paltz.

Oscar S. Straus (CFR21) (1910-1926), born in Otterberg, Rhenish Bavaria, the third son of Lazarus and Sara (Straus) Straus, whose other two sons, Isidor and Nathan, were merchants (R.H. Macy & Co.).  Columbia Law School, 1873.  Minister to Turkey, 1887-89.  Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague (1902),  reappointed in 1908, 1912, and 1920.  Secretary of commerce and labor, T. Roosevelt.  First American ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, (1909) appointed by  William Howard Taft.  Member of the League to Enforce Peace.  American Jewish Committee,  Jewish Welfare Board, and Joint Distribution Committee. Founder (1892) and first president of the American Jewish Historical Society.  First President, New York Peace Society.

Charles L. Taylor (1910-1922), 1876 graduate of Lehigh University, chemist for Cambria and Homestead; Trustee, Lehigh University of Bethlehem, Pa.;  President, 1904-1922, Carnegie Hero Fund Commission.

Charlemagne Tower (1910-1923), diplomat, born at Philadelphia, Pa. Phillips Exeter Academy; graduated from Harvard College in 1872, four years in travel and study in Europe and the Near East. Admitted to the bar, 1878, and practiced in Philadelphia until 1882. President in his father's Vermilion Range iron ore fields in Minnesota, director, Minnesota Iron Company, financed by his father.  Sold family interests in 1887,  returned to Philadelphia, active in coal mining and finance until 1891.  Vice-president of the department of archaeology and paleontology of the University of Pennsylvania and as trustee, 1896-99.  Appointed minister to Austria-Hungary, 1897. Ambassador to Russia, 1899-1902. American ambassador to Berlin, 1902-08.

Andrew Dickson White (7 Nov 1832-4 Nov 1918) (S&B 1854) (1910-1918) -- Son of railroad millionaire. Educator. Educated in Hegelian philosophy at U. of Berlin. Professor of History and English Literature, University of Michigan (1857-1866). Early Member, Society for Psychic Research (Venetian-trained Theological Expert). 1st President, Cornell University (1866-1885). Gave Cornell $300,000 to set up School of Government. Professor of history, Cornell University (1855-1885). Advised Hoover on establishing the Hoover Institution. Founder, Carnegie Institution of Washington. U.S. Minister to Germany (1879-1881) (1897-1902). U.S. Minister to Russia (1892-1894) (intimate of Russian aristocracy). Founder and 1st President, American Historical Association. Regent, Smithsonian Institution. Episcopalian. Helped establish Russell Trust at Yale (1856).

John Sharp Williams (1910-1922), representative and senator from Mississippi; U.S. Senator 1911-23. He was in close agreement with President Wilson in respect to the entrance of the United States into the World War and its vigorous prosecution, and he also strove to secure the entrance of the United States into the League of Nations.

Robert S. Woodward (d. 1985) (1910-1924), University of Michigan,1872. United States Lake Survey of Great Lakes, 1972-82; federal commission to observe the transit of Venus, 1882-84. Professor of mechanics and mathematical physics at Columbia University; dean of its College of Pure Science. Original Trustee, Institute for Government Research (IGR) (late 1915). President, Carnegie Institution of Washington.

Luke E. Wright (1910-1918), In 1900 McKinley appointed him a member of the second Philippine commission. In 1901 he became vice-governor of the Philippines, and a little later, in 1904, governor, succeeding William H. Taft. On Feb. 6, 1905, his title was changed to governor-general. Appointed by Roosevelt as first U.S. ambassador to Japan, 1905

*The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was founded on December 14, 1910 by transferring $10 million in bonds to the 28 trustees. Source: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Summary of Organization and Work 1911-1941 v, ix-x (1941).

[List researched by Eric Samuelson; and].  See also

In 1881 Standard Oil hired a Pennsylvania lawyer named Samuel C. T. Dodd as its general counsel.  Dodd had been born in Franklin, Pa. and began practicing law there the same year oil was discovered in Titusville.  In the 1870s he represented clients against the Rockefeller interests, and he acquired considerable reputation as an anti-rebate lawyer. In 1872-73 he served as a delegate to the Pennsylvania constitutional convention, where he fathered the anti-rebate clause which that body wrote into the new constitution. During this period he served as counsel for numerous oil operators and transportation companies, especially the transportation companies from which the United Pipe Lines were later formed. He is sometimes called the inventor of the trust as a form of business combination. There had been a less comprehensive Standard Oil trust agreement in 1879, but state laws did not then afford a way for corporations to combine.  Dodd was seeking  a means of creating a "corporation of corporations." Under the trust agreement which he drew up, the voting stocks of some forty companies were placed in the hands of nine trustees.  Every stockholder received 20 Trust certificates for each share of Standard Oil stock.  All profits of component companies were sent to the board to determine the dividends. The Trustees elected directors and officers of all the component companies. 
The trust agreement was kept secret for six years.  In 1892 the Supreme Court of Ohio decided that it was an illegal combination in restraint of trade and also that the Standard Oil Company of Ohio, one of the component companies, had exceeded its lawful corporate powers in entering the agreement. Accordingly, in March of that year Dodd presented the resolutions for the dissolution of the trust. This dissolution did not materially alter the actual conditions of the business. For six years the now dissociated corporations conducted business under a "gentlemen's agreement," and under Dodd's legal oversight. In 1899 he drew up the plans for the organization of the holding company, the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey. He continued as legal adviser until 1905 when he retired. 
John D. Rockefeller's charitable donations were first guided in 1891 by the Rev. Frederick T. Gates , who took control of Rockefeller's stock portfolio of about 20 corporations.  Gates either obtained control of each company or disposed of its stock, leaving him with 13 corporations, with Gates as president of each.  One of the companies owned the Mesabi ore deposits in Minnesota.  When Gates gained control, Rockefeller owned 60% of all U.S. iron.  Then he leased the properties to Carnegie in 1896 on the condition that the mined ore would be transported on Rockefeller's railroads or ships in the Great Lakes.  Five years later, Carnegie sold out to Morgan, who quickly bought the ore-carriers and Mesabi ore from Rockefeller, uniting it all into U.S. Steel.  With the money they got from Morgan, both men created foundations.  As we have seen in previous segments, the Morgan bank acted as a front for undisclosed investors.  Prof. Quigley asserted that from the 1880s to the 1930s J.P. Morgan & Co. completely dominated international financial capitalism--the gold standard, foreign-exchange fluctuations, floating of fixed-interest securities and industrial shares for stock-exchange markets--and that it was "Anglophile, internationalist, Ivy League, eastern seaboard, high Episcopalian, and European-culture conscious."  (p. 937, Tragedy and Hope).  Quigley theorized that the Ivy League connection was based on the universities' large endowments which required constant consultation with the financiers, the endowments being largely in bonds.  That explains, he says, the "constant interchange between the Ivy League and the Federal government."
Road to Oz Is Paved With "Charitable" Intentions
Medical Research
Rev. Gates induced Rockefeller to create the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in 1901 and placed Simon Flexner in charge.  Flexner had been a druggist's apprentice before entering the University of Louisville, and receiving an M.D. in 1889.  In 1890 he went to Baltimore to study pathology at the Johns Hopkins Hospital.  In 1893 he visited Europe briefly, studying pathology at Strasbourg and at Prague.  He was professor of pathology at the University of Pennsylvania from 1899 to 1903.  In 1903 he married Helen Whitall Thomas, sister of M. Carey Thomas, president of Bryn Mawr College, and a talented member of an outstanding Quaker family in Baltimore.  He was a trustee of the Johns Hopkins University and of the Carnegie Foundation of New York, and a member of the Royal Society of London.  After his retirement from the Rockefeller Institute in 1935, Flexner was appointed Eastman Professor at Oxford University for 1937-38 and was a helpful advisor in setting up the medical professorships endowed by Lord Nuffield at Oxford's Radcliffe Infirmary.
Later with Flexner at the Medical Research Institute from 1921-36 was Raymond Blaine Fosdick (1883-1972), an attorney and author,  who served as undersecretary-general of the League of Nations (1919-1920).  He also was involved in the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial, the International Education Board, the General Education Board, and the Rockefeller Foundation--in varying capacities until 1948. He was the brother of Harry Emerson Fosdick, who was Rockefeller's pastor and for whom Rockefeller built Riverside Church in the mid-1920's. Raymond Fosdick went on Rockefeller's payroll in 1913. He was sent to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 as part of "Col." Edward Mandell House's group, "the Inquiry," which ran the American team at Paris. At the League of Nations, Fosdick, as Under Secretary General, worked daily with 31-year-old Jean Monnet, France's Under Secretary General. Fosdick wrote to his wife that he, Monnet, and the British Under Secretary General were working to lay the foundations of "the framework of international government. . . ." (Letter of July 31, 1919; in Fosdick, ed., Letters on the League of Nations [Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1966],  p. 18.)  Over the next six decades, Monnet became the driving force behind the creation of the European Common Market and the New European order. Meanwhile, Fosdick returned to the United States, became Rockefeller's attorney in 1920, and ran the Rockefeller Foundation's empire for the next three decades. He wrote Rockefeller's authorized biography, published in 1956. He was a founding member of the CFR in 1921, along with many other members of the Inquiry. 47

Through Raymond Fosdick, Rockefeller became acquainted with Arthur Sweetser, who encouraged his interest in the League of Nations. Rockefeller saw in the League an organization which could pursue at an official level the projects in social work, health and education for which the Rockefeller Foundation was designed. Rockefeller thus began to sponsor a number of League activities and personally contributed with $2 million of his own to the establishment of the League Library, nowadays the UNOG Library.  Arthur Sweetser would later be present at the Dumbarton Oaks conference, which set up the United Nations.  He was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations Peace and Aims Group with Allen Dulles and William Langer, the OSS branch chief for Research and Analysis who pioneered psychological profiling.  Sweetser, became the Deputy director of the Office of War Information (an Orwellian euphemism for "propaganda").  Sweetser and Langer also worked together as members of the CFR Political Group with John Foster Dulles. 48  It is likely that Arthur Sweetser was related to Edwin Chapin Sweetser, a Universalist minister in Philadelphia, 1879-1920, born in Massachusetts and educated at Tufts and then the Canton Theological School in New York.  Edwin Sweetser spoke at the World's Parliament of Religions in Chicago in 1893.  He also gave the opening sermon at the Geneva Convention in 1911.

In 1903 the General Education Board was created, having been proposed by John D., Jr., with Carnegie appointed trustee, to direct education into an "orderly system."  The Carnegie Foundation, in fact, financed a report setting out standards to organize medical education, which, when put in effect reduced the number of medical schools by one-third within five years; those schools which would not focus on the institute's goals received no funding.  Carnegie hired Abraham Flexner,  Simon's brother and a graduate of Johns Hopkins, to do the study.  Flexner advocated the restructuring of American higher education along the lines of Johns Hopkins, based on the German education system.  Flexner had done graduate study in psychology at Harvard, followed by study in comparative education at the University of Berlin.  After writing the report for Carnegie, Abraham was hired by the Rockefellers' General Education Board where he worked for 15 years.  Flexner had previously been a Rhodes Memorial Lecturer at Oxford.   
Rockefeller Foundation
In 1913 the Rockefeller Foundation was chartered in New York with a gift of Standard Oil securities worth $100 million.  In that same year Junior hired Ivy Lee to handle public relations for him.  Lee was at that time employed by the Pennsylvania Railroad, for which he had first been hired in 1906 by president, A.J. Cassatt, who had been trained by Thomas Scott.  Lee was the son of James Wideman Lee, an ordained Methodist minister who, like Edwin Sweetser, spoke at the World Parliament of Religion in 1893, and headed an expedition to Palestine in 1894.  Ivy Lee was a Princeton graduate (1898) who did post-graduate work at Harvard and Columbia before doing publicity work for the Democratic national committee. He then opened an office in New York and obtained a number of prominent clients.  In 1910 he went to England as representative of a firm of New York brokers and within three years opened offices for them in London, Paris, and Berlin. In 1911-12 he lectured at the London School of Economics, a school founded by the Bloomsbury Group, tied to Fabian Socialists and to the Round Table.  49
"Social Hygiene," (meaning "vice")
Junior began to be fully involved in 1911 when he set up the Bureau of Social Hygiene, which concerned itself with social reform.  He sent Abraham Flexner  to Europe to study prostitution, and later Fosdick to study police administration.  A subsequent study was made into drug use.  With each study, "experts" rose to prominence who then were employed within the federal government's administration, promulgating the findings of the Bureau studies.  The findings always leaned toward criminalizing the undesired activity to drive it underground. 
Council on Foreign Relations
The World Affairs Councils originated on the local level after the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) was created in New York in 1921.  Cleveland and Chicago were the first cities to have regular Council meetings to discuss world affairs.  The Cleveland Council on World Affairs was the first community group specifically to use the name "council on world affairs" beginning in 1943, and it is, in fact, the prototype on which the world affairs council movement is based.  Dr. Brooks Emeny, of the Cleveland Council on World Affairs, is "father of the world affairs council movement," and the "grandfather" of Foreign Policy Association.  In 1964  the National Committee of Community World Affairs Organizations was formed. In 1968, the organization was incorporated in the State of Pennsylvania, as the National Council of Community World Affairs Organizations, and in 1969 declared exempt from Federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.  William C. Messner, Jr., Executive Director of the Cincinnati Council on World Affairs, served as the first President and Max Bishop was the first Vice President of the new organization.
The British Empire never gracefully conceded control of its most valuable colony.  Instead, its bankers used their sons and daughters to form marital appliances and to create financial connections through investments in trade, commerce and industry.  The consortium model of investment contributed to a globalist ideal controlled from London through the banking network from which it had long been dispensing funds through secret syndicate agreements.  Through the years, the financing would be renewed into new types of legal entities designed to be controlled by lawyers and bankers motivated by the principles of internationalism, peace and improvement of mankind.  The laudatory motives have served to prevent criticism of the institutions--educational, religious and humanitarian--whose true goal is centralized control.  The initial infrastructure was created in Pennsylvania, leading us to conclude that the Penn Central debacle was a method of moving money out of the United States and into the hands of the invisible controllers--a foretaste of Enron 30 years later.


1 Bevan was born in Wayne, Pa., on August 5, 1906. He received his BA from Haverford College in 1929 and his MBA from the Harvard Business School in 1931. He worked for the Provident Trust Company until 1942, when he resigned to join the War Production Board. He spent most of the War working for Lend-Lease in Australia and during 1945 served as deputy head of the Mission of Economic Affairs at the US Embassy in London. He returned to the Provident Trust Company briefly but moved to the New York Life Insurance Company in the fall of 1946.   In May 1951 Bevan became Vice-President in charge of Finance for the Pennsylvania Railroad in Philadelphia. This was only the second time that the company had gone outside its own ranks to fill a vice-presidency. The railroad was in serious difficulty since the war traffic boom had evaporated, and its financial and accounting practices were archaic. Bevan overhauled the financial department, brought in new talent from GE and IBM and introduced modern accounting, budgeting and forecasting practices. PRR President James Symes, however, had pegged the firm's survival on a merger with the parallel New York Central Railroad. As a condition of the merger, the PRR was obliged to dispose of its profitable investments in the Norfolk and Western Railway. Bevan began a large diversification program to redirect this investment into oil pipelines and Sun Belt real estate.   The Pennsylvania-New York Central merger took effect on February 1, 1968. However, it had the effect of multiplying the railroad's problems. The plan for merging two large and philosophically different organizations was not well thought out, and a bitter three-way rivalry broke out between Chairman Stuart T. Saunders, a lawyer, President Alfred E. Perlman, an operating man, and Bevan. Eventually, all three were dismissed by the board on June 8, 1970, in a last-ditch effort to retain the confidence of the company's bankers. Penn Central filed for reorganization on June 21, the largest American corporate bankruptcy to that time. The scale of the bankruptcy led to four separate government investigations between 1970 and 1972. For the House Committee on Banking and Currency, led by the old Texas populist, Wright Patman. Bevan was the principal villain and scapegoat. Ignoring evidence that the railroad operation had long been unprofitable in its own right and had been supported only by the income from outside investments and the sale of capital assets, Patman pilloried Bevan for draining the company's resources into his diversification program. Patman's investigation highlighted three peripheral episodes rife with the scent of scandal and corruption, but whose financial contribution to the bankruptcy was negligible: the PRR's investment in Executive Jet Aviation; Bevan's participation in Penphil, a private investment club that invested in some of the same companies as the PRR; and the theft of $4 million from Penn Central by a shadowy German industrialist, Fidel Goetz, who tricked company officials into depositing it in a phony Liechtenstein bank. Bevan was named in two criminal suits arising from the bankruptcy in 1972. Philadelphia County District Attorney Arlen Specter brought indictments in the EJA episode, and a federal grand jury investigated the Goetz affair and indicted Bevan and four others in 1974. Bevan was acquitted in both cases. He died in Bryn Mawr on April 8, 1996.  The history of Chemical Bank, which made loans for Penphil investments, can be seen at and  and  It began in 1823 with the founding of New York Chemical Manufacturing Co.  In 1929 Chemical obtained a New York State charter, becoming Chemical Bank and Trust Co.; Hanover National Bank merged with Central Union Trust Company to become Central Hanover Bank and Trust Co., and in 1951, simply Hanover Bank.  Central Union Trust held mortgages on Beginning in 1920 the bank went through a series of mergers, including New York Trust and Manufacturers Hanover Trust, culminating in the consolidation of Rockefeller interests in the recent merger with J.P. Morgan and Chase. In 1930 Rockefeller combined the Chase National with the Equitable Trust and merged it in 1937 with Manufacturers Hanover, which merged into Chemical Bank in 1991. In December 1986 Houston's Texas Commerce Bancshares was acquired by the Chemical Bank, making it the fourth largest bank company, behind Citicorp, BankAmerica and Chase Manhattan.  In 1996 Chemical merged with Chase.
4 --  This council included the following five men: Thomas Clifford, 1st Baron of Chudleigh and lord treasurer; Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington and secretary of state; George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham; Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury and lord chancellor; and John Maitland, first Duke of Lauderdale and Charles's principal administrator in Scotland. When some of the policies of these ministers proved unpopular (particularly their signing of the 1672 Treaty of Alliance with France, a Catholic nation, for war against Holland, a Protestant nation), this Ministry was dubbed a cabal, with the negative connotations the word now carries: a junta or council of intriguers united to bring about an overturn or usurpation, particularly in public affairs. Sometime later the belief arose that cabal was not merely an existing word which had been applied to a group Charles' ministers, but that the word itself was actually derived from the initial letters of these five men's names: Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley, and Lauderdale.
  [Source:  "History of Barclay’s Bank," H.S. Foxwell's review in The Economic Journal, September 1927, pp. 411-417, of a book compiled by P.W. Matthews, Chief Inspector of the Bankers’ Clearing House (1900-1920), edited by Anthony W. Tuke, Local Director of Barclays Bank (Blades, East and Blades, Ltd., 1926.] The book explains British banking history, including the rise of joint-stock banking, limited liability and the great banking amalgamations after 1915, but it indicates that there was a "quite peculiar" manner which amalgamation has taken place in the case of Barclays bank, as follows:

The nucleus of the combination consisted of two great firms united in 1888; Barclay, Bevan, Tritton & Co., and Ransom, Bouverie & Co.; each of them London agents of a number of country banks; and their first amalgamation of 1896, a most natural one, was a union with some twenty of these country banks, in which the Gurneys of Norwich and Backhouse of Darlington figured most actively. From time to time after 1896 there were many similar unions with local banks, especially in districts where the bank was not previously represented. Finally, after 1915, Barclays joined in the general movement for concentration on a far larger scale, and amalgamated with large centralized branch-banks of a different type. In the end it has become the third in size of our Big Five clearing banks, with deposits of over 300 million pounds, and 1838 bank offices.

A review of the Barclays history book found in The Economist in 1927 summarizes as follows:

In the course of the narrative the reader is introduced to a large number of the best known names in English banking: Alexander, Backhouse, Barclay of course, Bevan, Birkbeck, Bolitho, Bosanquet, Bouverie, Buxton, Eaton, Foster, Gosling, Gurneys, Hoare, Leatham, Lucas, Pease, Peckover, Seebohm, Tritton, Tuke, Williams and many others. * * * * It is really astonishing how intimately the English banking families were inter-related. The writer was once shown by an English banker a very elaborate pedigree, some four feet square, on which he made out his descent from Sir John Houblon, the first Governor of the Bank of England. It further appeared from this tangled web of descents and marriages that he was also connected with almost every banking family one had heard of. This intimate and complicated relationship is fully illustrated in the book we are considering. It largely extends our printed record of such connections, and perhaps even more of those religious sympathies on which they were grounded. The Quakers have played a great part in English banking, nowhere more than in the Barclay group; the Huguenots may rank next; but a certain pietistic and mystical form of religious feeling seems to have characterized nearly all the original Barclay bankers.    and .  For more information on Barings Bank history, see .
8   The chronicler of the house of Baring, Philip Ziegler, writes  that after 1783, Barings began to correspond with Robert Morris and William Bingham.  [The Sixth Great Power: Barings 1762-1929. London: Collins, 1988].   Pertaining to Barings Bank's role in the opium trade, see .  In 1799, Maria Bingham, daughter of the renowned Philadelphia socialite Anne Willing Bingham, eloped with Jacques Alexander, Comte de Tilly, in Philadelphia. She renounced the marriage weeks later, and Tilly left America with £5000 of William Bingham’s money in his pocket. Three years later she married Henry Baring in London. They divorced messily in 1823, exchanging charges of frequent infidelities....Joshua Francis Fisher, a Philadelphia gentleman, displayed not even a hint of condemnation toward Bingham’s behavior in his recollections. Fisher blamed Baring for introducing Maria “into the most dissipated company” in France. He cared not a whit for the improprieties that would have rendered her a pariah in respectable circles, instead praising her as “quite an amusing” woman when he met her in Paris in 1827. “She had seen the world in many phases, and had plenty of anecdotes which she told pleasantly,” Fisher observed. Her aunt, Abigail Peters, also dismissed her imprudence. She “may have been indiscreet,” Peters explained, “but she was never criminal.” Respectable middle-class observers of the European scene may well have found such a distinction meaningless. Indeed, middling women saw some seemingly harmless practices as dangerously corrupting. .  For information on the Bingham estate, see and   In 1825 Henry Baring married Cecilia Windham, with whom he had 10 children, including Edward Charles Baring, the 1st Baron Revelstoke; Evelyn Baring, the 1st Earl of Cromer; and Walter Baring, British Ambassador to Uruguay. Edward "Ned" Baring, the 1st Baron Revelstoke had overextended the bank in Argentina, and though Barings was eventually resuscitated by the Bank of England, the Rothschilds and the Bank of France, there was massive selling on the New York Stock Exchange. Most importantly, Barings, along with their US Agent, Kidder Peabody, were the major underwriters for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and in the post-Barings collapse period, the extremely important London market for the underwriting of US securities nose-dived.  
  It gets very interesting to follow the genealogies of these trustees, as provided from the history of a painting:  Dr. Charles Willing (1806–1887) was the son of Thomas Mayne Willing (1767–1822),and his wife was Rebecca Tillinghast Willing (d. 1889).  Dr. Charles Willing’s cousin was Edward Shippen Willing (1822–1906), whose daughter was Ava Lowle Willing (wife of John Jacob Astor IV, later Lady Ribblesdale), whose daughter was Alice Muriel Obolensky (1902–1956), mother of Ivan Obolensky.  See concerning Astor, and  Ava Willing Astor:  "By 1896, Mrs. [Vincent] Astor had become a social favorite in London, where she spent a good deal of time. She maintained a country home near the British capital and at her town house in Mayfair, entertained many members of the British nobility, including King Edward VII....Her next appearance in this country came in 1929 when she returned as Lady Ribblesdale, widow of the former Lord-in-Waiting to Queen Victoria. Their wedding in St. Mary's Church, Bryanston Square, London, in June 1919, took London society by surprise. Lord Ribblesdale died in 1925....Besides Mr.  Astor, Lady Ribblesdale leaves also four grandchildren, Ivan Obolensky, Mrs. Sylvia Guirey, Mrs. Romana McEwen, and Miss Emily Harding, and three great-grandchildren. Her daughter, Mrs. Alice Pleydell-Bouverie, died in 1956. "  Ava Alice Muriel Astor was first married to Prince Serge Obolensky, a former Czarist officer. Her second husband was an Austrian writer named Raimund Von Hofmannsthal, and her third husband was a British journalist named Philip Harding. Her final husband was David Pleydell-Bouverie, a New York architect. All four marriages ended in divorce.  As to the lineage of Serge Obolensky, a White Russian exile, see and  As to Hare, see .
10 and and  Relating to Henry Sturgis Drinker's connection to the opium trade, see and
12  {THE CITY TRUSTS NEED BUSTING By MARK ALAN HUGHES: LIFETIME appointments are usually reserved for things like the Supreme Court. I know of only one job in all of American local government that's for life: a seat on the Board of Directors of City Trusts in Philadelphia  .. And the big difference between being a Supreme Court justice and being on the board of City Trusts is that the latter has a $400 million portfolio to control during that lifetime, with virtually no one watching. The City Trusts is the kind of situation that serves corrupt politicians very well. Think of all the effort that's been expended on getting assurances about the mayor's proposed $250 million blight bond. This is almost twice as much money and the Board can make their "investment" decisions pretty much as they please. It's the kind of thing that makes the pinstripe patronage of bond underwriting look positively small potatoes. The judges of the Court of Common Pleas elect the Board in closed session. As seats come up, nominations to the Board are doled out by political insiders like so much, well, like so much dole. Usually, the political machine arranges the nominations and elections so that the Board operates like a private club. But an amazing thing happened last month: someone showed up uninvited and actually got himself elected to the Board. According to reports in both newspapers, City Councilman Michael Nutter ran for one of two open seats on the Board. Power lawyer Richard Glanton was, shall we say, favored to win one of those seats. But in the end, and for reasons we'll never really know, Nutter won and Glanton lost. Can there be anything more humiliating for our local power elite than to have their ascension to a position like the City Trusts get publicly derailed? But the best might be yet to come. I'd love to be a fly on the wall when Nutter, an investment banker in his life before City Council, first takes a gander at the City Trusts portfolio. Oh, baby. The Trusts consist of over 100 separate gifts to the City made since 1739. The largest of these is the Girard Estate, but it also includes the gifts that fund everything from the Wills Eye Hospital to Mummer's prizes. The Trusts were once so valuable to the city that their protection and preservation was a major negotiating point in the 1854 consolidation of the city with the rest of the county. That year the city formally expanded from the 2 square miles we know as Center City to become the huge 130 square mile city we know today. At the time, people worried mightily that the consolidation would mean that the city would legally lose its trusts. We did not lose legal control over our trusts in 1854. But have we lost political control of them in the years since? The Board of City Trusts is one of the machine's best sandboxes. A system of secret elections to lifetime appointments making investment decisions without oversight is the epitome of the "corrupt and contented" Philadelphia that muckrakers have railed against for 100 years.  Such a system thrives not because no one knows about it- they have a website ( but because no one cares. Well, apparently, Michael Nutter cares enough to get himself elected. And that's really the lesson here. Maybe the emperor has no clothes. Maybe the machine is only as strong as our laziness lets it be. Maybe if more of us start showing up and getting ourselves elected or whatever, then maybe a few more local powers will get humiliated and some things will finally change for the better. Maybe. * Mark Alan Hughes teaches in Penn's Fox Leadership Program and is a weekly contributor to the Daily Views. Contact him and view past articles at}   See also
13 and and and
14   ( and ).  The role of the Bush family in this pro-Nazi eugenics cabal is explored in . 
15   Jacqueline was the daughter of Janet Norton Lee and John Vernou Bouvier III, who were married in New York's East Hampton, where both her grandparents owned comfortable summer houses in what was virtually Wall-Street-on-Sea.  The two dominant males in Jackie's early life were her paternal grandfather, Major John Vernou Bouvier Jr., and her father. Her grandfather, known as "Grampy Jack" or "Grampy Bouvier" to his ten grandchildren and "the Major" to everyone else, was the center of summer family life at Lasata, the stucco, ivy-clad house on Further Lane. It was strategically situated near the ocean and the Maidstone Club, the heart of East Hampton social life, where the Bouviers had purchased a cabana in 1926.  The Bouviers' first house was a three-story, verandaed building called Wildmoor on Appaquogue Road; in 1925 the Major's wife, Maude Sergeant, bought Lasata with her father's money. It was not until 1935 that the Major, having inherited a considerable fortune from his uncle Michel Charles "M. C." Bouvier, took over the house and began to live the expansive life to which he felt entitled, and which ended, at his death, in the financial ruin of the family.  Jackie's grandmother, Caroline Ewing, was the granddaughter of Captain James Ewing.  Her father known as "Black Jack" was a member of Yale Senior Society, Book and Snake, though he had been expelled for gambling from his prep school, Phillips Exeter, the same prep school George H.W. Bush would later attend before entering Yale.  Michel Charles Bouvier's father, also named Michel, had been born in 1792 in Pont-Saint-Esprit, Provençal, France but died in 1874 in Philadelphia, where he was married to Sarah Anne Pearson in 1822.  So he was a Philadelphia banker from the South of France, near Marseilles.  It is not known whether the Bouviers in France became involved in the opium trade that began around 1862, several years after Michel Bouvier had moved from France. "More significant in the long run was the French establishment of an opium franchise to put their new colony on a paying basis only six months after they annexed Saigon in 1862. Opium was imported from India, taxed at 10 percent of* value, and sold by licensed Chinese merchants to all comers....Opium became an extremely lucrative source of income, and this successful experiment was repeated as the French acquired other areas in Indochina. Shortly after the French established a protectorate over Cambodia (1863) and central Vietnam (1883), and annexed Tonkin (northern Vietnam, 1884) and Laos (1893), they founded autonomous opium monopolies to finance the heavy initial expenses of colonial rule. While the opium franchise had succeeded in putting southern Vietnam on a paying basis within several years, the rapid expansion of French holdings in the 1880s and 1890s created a huge fiscal deficit for Indochina as a whole. ...The man of the hour was a former Parisian budget analyst named Paul Doumer, and one of his solutions was opium.  Soon after he stepped off the boat from France in 1897, Governor-General Doumer began a series of major fiscal reforms...After consolidating the five autonomous opium agencies into the single Opium Monopoly, Doumer constructed a modern, efficient opium refinery in Saigon to process raw Indian resin into prepared smoker's opium."  It is known that opium dens were rampant in the South of France as early as 1913, when a statement by Rouzier Dorcieres was printed in the New York Times that: " 'opium is poisoning our navy.'  M. Dorcieres points out as an extraordinary paradox that this terrible scourge is actually one of the principal State manufactures in France's greatest colony, Indo-China, where it is sold under a State guarantee as freely as tobacco is here and contributes more than one-sixth of the entire revenue of the country. According to the latest figures, he says, the annual production of opium in that colony is over 260,000 pounds, bringing an average revenue of $2,102,000. Through smuggling, however, the consumption is, at least, double that shown by the official figures. M. Dorcieres says that the dens of Marseilles, Toulon, and other towns are supplied by a syndicate of smugglers, who even pay the fines of their agents when caught red-handed." 
16  [If the Tribunal will permit, I will read from the original exhibit. On top is a letter from Ambassador Bullitt to the Secretary of State, November 23, 1937, stating that he visited Warsaw, stopped in Berlin en route, where he had conversations with [Hjalmar] Schacht and Goering, among others. (See Schacht's background at ).  On the conversation with Schacht, I read from Page 2 of the report: "Schacht said that in his opinion, the best way to begin to deal with Hitler was not through political discussion but through economic discussion. Hitler was not in the least interested in economic matters. He regarded money as filth. It was therefore possible to enter into negotiations with him in the economic domain without arousing his emotional antipathy, and it might be possible through the conversations thus begun to lead him into arrangements in the political and military field, in which he was intensely interested. Hitler was determined to have Austria eventually attached to Germany, and to obtain at least autonomy for the Germans of Bohemia. At the present moment he was not vitally concerned about the Polish Corridor and in his"--that is Schacht's-- "opinion, it might be possible to maintain the Corridor, provided Danzig were permitted to join East Prussia, and provided some sort of a bridge could be built across the Corridor, uniting Danzig and East Prussia with Germany."
See also
17  Fuggerei, the oldest "social settlement" in the world. Admittedly, you rarely find low-income housing on a tourist's "must-see" list. In Augsburg, it's a prime attraction. Of course, this settlement dates from the 16th century, a gift of the wealthy Fugger brothers. The Fuggerei, with its 148 apartments, offered citizens life-long housing for the equivalent of a dollar a year – as long as they were poor, married, Catholic and born in Augsburg.
18  (John Reed's financial supporters and Whitney genealogy)  and 
19  (Duke genealogies) and and For information on William C. Bullitt, see .
20  (Bullitt at "Life")
22  This analysis of Wilson's character was so devastating that its publication had to be postponed until 1967, following the death of Wilson's widow. Bullitt and Freud explain that Wilson was psychologically unable properly to carry out his duties at the Versailles Peace Conference. On 8 April 1919 he even suffered what Bullitt and Freud called a "moral collapse" in relinquishing his highly touted "Fourteen Points" peace plan on the promises of which Germany had laid down its arms.  Sigmund Freud and William C. Bullitt, Thomas Woodrow Wilson, Twenty-Eighth President of the United States (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976)
23  For how these groups worked in Bosnia, see 
24   For the list of U.S. ambassadors to Spain, see:  Concerning the Vatican's role in providing an escape route for Nazis and their gold, see: and and  In 1947, Peron was living in Argentina's presidential palace and was hearing pleas from thousands of other Nazis desperate to flee Europe. The stage was set for one of the most troubling boatlifts in human history.  In June 1947, Evita left for post-war Europe. A secret purpose of her first major overseas trip apparently was pulling together the many loose ends of the Nazi relocation.  Evita's first stop on her European tour was Spain, where Generalissimo Francisco Franco -- her husband's model and mentor -- greeted her with all the dignified folderol of a head of state.  A fascist who favored the Axis powers but maintained official neutrality in the war, Franco had survived to provide a haven for the Third Reich's dispossessed. Franco’s Spain was an important early hide-out for Nazis who slipped through the grasp of the Allies and needed a place to stay before continuing on to more permanent homes in Latin America or the Middle East.  While in Spain, Evita reportedly met secretly with Nazis who were part of the entourage of Otto Skorzeny, the dashing Austrian commando leader known as Scarface because of a dueling scar across his left cheek.  Though under Allied detention in 1947, Skorzeny already was the purported leader of the clandestine organization, Die Spinne or The Spider, which used millions of dollars looted from the Reichsbank to smuggle Nazis from Europe to Argentina.  After escaping in 1948, Skorzeny set up the legendary ODESSA organization which tapped into other hidden Nazi funds to help ex-SS men rebuild their lives -- and the fascist movement --- in South America.  Evita’s next stop was equally fitting. The charismatic beauty traveled to Rome for an audience with Pope Pius XII, a Vatican meeting that lasted longer than the usual kiss on the ring.  At the time, the Vatican was acting as a crucial way station doling out forged documents for fascist fugitives. Pope Pius himself was considered sympathetic to the tough anti-communism of the fascists although he had kept a discreet public distance from Hitler.  A top-secret State Department report from May 1947 -- a month before Evita's trip -- had termed the Vatican "the largest single organization involved in the illegal movement of emigrants," including many Nazis. Leading ex-Nazis later publicly thanked the Vatican for its vital assistance. [For details, see Martin A. Lee's The Beast Reawakens.]  As for the Evita-Pius audience, former Justice Department Nazi-hunter John Loftus has charged that the First Lady of the Pampas and His Holiness discussed the care and feeding of the Nazi faithful in Argentina.  After her Roman holiday, Evita hoped to meet Great Britain's Queen Elizabeth. But the British government balked out of fear that the presence of Peron's wife might provoke an embarrassing debate over Argentina's pro-Nazi leanings and the royal family's own pre-war cuddling up to Hitler.  Instead, Evita diverted to Rapallo, a town near Genoa on the Italian Rivera. There, she was the guest of Alberto Dodero, owner of an Argentine shipping fleet known for transporting some of the world's most unsavory cargo.  On June 19, 1947, in the midst of Evita's trip, the first of Dodero's ships, the “Santa Fe,” arrived in Buenos Aires and disgorged hundreds of Nazis onto the docks of their new country.  Over the next few years, Dodero's boats would carry thousands of Nazis to South America, including some of Hitler's vilest war criminals, the likes of Mengele and Eichmann, according to Argentine historian Jorge Camarasa.  On August 4, 1947, Evita and her entourage headed north to the stately city of Geneva, a center for international finance. There, she participated in more meetings with key figures from the Nazi escape apparatus.
25 and
It may not be a coincidence that a mirror order to the Russian Grand Priory was formed before WWI, which would subsequently be based in Shickshinny, Pa.--thus referred to as the "Shickshinny Knights of Malta."   ("Saucers, Secrets and Shickshinny Knights" by Martin Davis):  In the early sixties Philip Corso was a member of a secret society called The Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, also known as the Shickshinny Knights of Malta, after the Pennsylvania town where the order was based. The order's "Armed Services Committee" was full of retired military types with ultra-rightist sympathies and included generals from the Douglas MacArthur circle like Bonner Fellers and Pedro del Valle. The Committee also included British Admiral Sir Barry Domville, who was fingered by the English as a Nazi agent and jailed during World War II, and General Charles Willoughby, former chief of intelligence for General Douglas MacArthur, whom MacArthur referred to as "my little fascist."   The Shickshinny Knights were fanatical anticommunists. Some of them, like Willoughby, were affiliated with international ultra-rightist organizations like the World Anticommunist League and the International Committee for the Defense of Christian Culture. Shickshinny, PA was itself the home of many White Russians who had fled Russia when the Bolsheviks came to power. In 1963, the Grand Chancellor of the Order was Col. Charles Thourot Pichel; during the thirties, Pichel had lobbied the German government to appoint him the official American liaison to Hitler.   The Shickshinny Knights Armed Services Committee membership list also included Philip J. Corso, who, according to Dick Russell, "had been a twenty-year Army Intelligence career man until his retirement in August 1963".  Russell notes that in 1954 Corso had been the Army Operations Coordinating Board's delegate to the CIA team planning the overthrow of Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman. (This coup, in which the democratically elected leftist Arbenz was successfully removed from office, was primarily a U.S. intelligence operation. It was celebrated by the CIA as a "bloodless coup" because nary a shot was fired; rather, Arbenz was driven to flee the country by a barrage of U.S.-backed disinformation and propaganda. In other words, it was for the most part what spy folk call a "psy op," or psychological operation.) In 1956, Corso worked with West German paramilitary units connected to the spy network of former Nazi master spy Reinhard Gehlen.13 (Corso himself claims that he participated in Operation Paperclip, the American intelligence operation that repatriated Nazi rocket scientists like Werner von Braun and Walter Dornberger to the U.S., so that they could run the U.S. space program.)    According to Peter Dale Scott, after the Kennedy assassination, both Corso and Frank Capell (another Shickshinny Knight, also an editor for the John Birch Society) were instrumental in spreading "stories linking Oswald to Russia and Ruby to Castro's Cuba."  In Deep Politics, Scott argues that such stories were systematically disseminated after the assassination as part of a cover-up, i.e., a disinformation scheme whose purpose was to deflect attention away from the real forces behind the Kennedy murder. Russell concurs, saying that Corso was "among the first to spread rumors hinting that Oswald was tied to a Communist ring inside the CIA". Apparently the colonel is still on the case: according to Corso co-author Birne, an upcoming volume from the duo, tentatively titled The Day After Dallas, will give the real insider's lowdown on the JFK assassination, emphasizing alleged penetration of the CIA and "the entire U.S. secret government," by the KGB.  (Interestingly, Russell explores indications--admittedly circumstantial--suggesting that the real group behind the assassination was connected to Willoughby and a "right-wing clique inside the Pentagon."   Both Russell and Scott link Willoughby, Corso, and company to a power struggle within the national security establishment between ultra-right military intelligence types and more "liberal," civilian CIA men. Willoughby's "old boys" were a vastly different breed from the old-school tie, Ivy League crowd who ran the CIA. Their enmity went back to a battle for hegemony between Military Intelligence and the OSS [the CIA] during World War II. While the CIA's power base expanded, the MacArthur-Willoughby's team's very existence was threatened. One Democratic president, Harry Truman, pushed them out of the far east. But Willoughby and his ilk did not fade away. They melded into global alliances, extending from quasi-religious orders such as the Shickshinny Knights of Malta to the [ex-Nazi] Reinhard Gehlen-Otto Skorzeny spy team in Europe.   Such details may have no bearing on Corso's bizarre UFO memoir. But they make clear that Corso has had a lifelong association with military intelligence and the ultra-right. They also suggest that he's no slouch at disinformation schemes and no stranger to hidden agendas. Furthermore, it's clear from such history that Corso is a veteran of CIA-style espionage. Interestingly, in The Day After Roswell, he paints CIA types as the bad guys in the story. It's this branch of the government that is bent on keeping the truth from the American people, Corso implies. Salt of the earth military patriots like himself just want the truth to come out, dadgummit.   The Shickshinny Knights who made up the Armed Services Committee of the society were described in the group's literature as "Soldiers of Christ and Advocates of a Free World"--as the shock troops of global anticommunism. Sharing the wealth, it seems safe to say, was not part of their agenda. But even Corso's pseudo-populist position has a Shickshinny feel to it. As both Scott and Russell demonstrate, the Shickshinny milieu represents a faction of the intelligence community that is to the right of the CIA and which views the whole civilian intelligence apparatus as a hotbed of dangerous liberalism. J. Edgar Hoover's own turf war with the CIA during the 1950s factors into this. As Scott writes: "The intra-bureaucratic feud of the 1950s between the CIA and Hoover was much more than a matter of personalities: it was a conflict between alternate visions (globalist/internationalist versus nationalist/expansionist) of how the United States should expand into the rest of the world. Where the major oil companies and their allies in the CIA thought of creating and dominating a global economy, their nationalist opposition in the United States preferred unilateralist expansion into specific areas, above all Latin America and the far east. The latter group allied dissident generals, resentful of civilian control, with exploiters of minerals and independent oilmen opposed to the oil majors, like William Pawley and H. L. Hunt."    These days, many would argue that the people would be well served by more opposition to the global economy and its elite promoters. But the "nationalist" opposition to globalization described above might as well be called the "fascist" opposition. Hunt, Hoover, and the Shickshinny types may not be fans of globalization, but they sure aren't the champions of ordinary folk. For "unilateralist expansion into. . . Latin America and the far east," read "Guatemala," "Chile," "Korea," "Vietnam."   At the time Corso joined the exclusive sect, its leader was one Colonel Charles Thourot Pichel. Pichel was an explicit, undeniable Nazi. During the Third Reich, he had begged Hitler's government for the job of representing Nazi political interests in the United States.   Willoughby had also joined the Shickshinny Knights at this time, and co-published with the organization a periodical called the "Foreign Intelligence Journal." This journal specialized in anti-Semitic theories and the kind of extremist "enemy-within" anti-Communist blather we associate with groups like the John Birch Society. Apparently, this rather odd group had become, in the early 1960s, something of a dumping-ground for military intelligence veterans who were so zealous they had come to consider the CIA hopelessly "pink."   The darling of this Corso's "Knights" was a very strange man named Michael Goliniewsky, whose name pops up in most histories of the CIA "mole-hunts" of the 1960s. Goliniewsky was a high-ranking Polish intelligence officer who sympathized with "the West," and began feeding information to the CIA. Apparently, his info was rather good at first. The Soviets became suspicious of him, so he had to scuttle off to America quickly....The CIA soon learned not to take Goliniewsky seriously. But his demented world-view fit right in with the ideas held by the Knights, Willoughby, Corso and co. So these "Knights" became the chief propagandists for Goliniewsky in the United States.  [NOTE:  Remember that Drexel Biddle, Jr. had connections to Poland since being appointed ambassador in 1937.]  ~~~~~~~
An interesting chart can be seen at (click on "chart" in frames to the left).  Notice how many powerful intelligence operatives in America have been connected to Knights of Malta.
26 For these connections, see our previous article at and
27 [Source:  Eustace Mullins. THE WORLD ORDER: Our Secret Rulers]; also see
28   With reference to Barings failure in South America:  What Revelstoke of Barings did was to underwrite a 2 million [pounds sterling] share issue by the Buenos Aires Water Supply and Drainage Company. That meant that Barings sent the money to Argentina before it had sold the shares, and the shares subsequently proved virtually impossible to sell. Much of Barings' capital was tied up in South America, and since the continent was going to pieces, questions of confidence in the bank were raised. It was committed to paying bills amounting to millions of pounds, and there was not enough money to meet the debt. Moreover, interest rates were rising and money was tight. This was a classic recipe for a bank failure. Because the stakes were so high, Barings was bailed out in November 1890 by a consortium organized by the governor of the Bank of England, William Lidderdale. The consortium drew on money from the bank itself and from the government of the day.  For information concerning the Laboucheres, see   and .  For reference to Labouchere's Truth, see 
29 and  
30   Reference to Cliveden is from ; [Quote is from a review of The Cliveden Set: Portrait of an Exclusive Fraternity by Norman Rose. Cape, © The Irish Times] See John Jacob Astor: America's First Multimillionaire by Axel Madsen.  According to a Public Broadcasting System documentary made for Frontline,  "John Jacob Astor of New York City joins the opium smuggling trade in 1816. His American Fur Company purchases ten tons of Turkish opium then ships the contraband item to Canton on the Macedonian. Astor would later leave the China opium trade and sell solely to England. "  See also
31   Representative members were Sidney and Beatrice Webb (founders of the London School of Economics), John Maynard Keynes (the Cambridge Professor and economist), H.G. Wells, Graham Wallas and Virginia Woolf.  Lawrence, born in 1888, graduated with honors in modern history in 1910 from Jesus College at Oxford.  His first job was as an assistant at a British Museum excavation in Iraq (then known as Mesopotamia).   When war broke out with Germany in 1914, Lawrence spent a brief period in the Geographical Section of the General Staff in London, and was then posted to the Military Intelligence Department in Cairo, eventually attaining the rank of Lt. Colonel.  In 1916, when the Arabs rebelled against the Turkish empire,Lawrence was sent to Mecca on a fact-finding mission, ultimately becoming the British liaison officer to the Arabs. In 1922 Lawrence resigned his position with the Colonial Office and enlisted in the RAF under an assumed name. After four months he was discovered by the press and discharged. With the help of a highly-placed friends he re-enlisted in the Tank Corps as 'Thomas Edward Shaw' and eventually succeeded in transferring back to the RAF. In March 1935 his twelve-year enlistment came to an end and he retired to Dorset, England. Two months later he was thrown from his motorcycle, and was killed. and   There were many in England and the United States who felt that the Treaty of Versailles imposed upon Germany was too harsh.  Attempts were made to remedy that situation by making private loans to Germany during the 1920s.  Among the groups which expressed this viewpoint was one formed by "the Apostles" at Cambridge University, a group composed of Lytton Strachey, Leonard Woolf, E.M. Forster, Bertrand Russell and John Maynard Keynes. The Apostles were in touch with members of the Fabian Society, which had originally been founded by a few Quakers in 1883. The Fabians believed that capitalism had created an unjust and inefficient society. They agreed that the ultimate aim of the group should be to reconstruct "society in accordance with the highest moral possibilities". and and The Turks had joined the war on the side of Germany and Austria in 1914, and called on their Arab subjects to join them in fighting the British, but the influential Arab ruler of Medina and Mecca, Grand Sharif Hussein, refused unless the Turks granted independence to Syria. The Turks would not grant these terms, and fighting began. Hussein had four sons, one of whom,the Emir Faisal I, became Lawrence's close collaborator. Lawrence had studied at Jesus College in Oxford before becoming a part of an expedition to Arabia. Lawrence assured Emir Faisal that the British would reward the Arabs with political independence at the end of the war. It was true that Britain and its allies intended to dismantle the Turkish Empire, but it was not true that they planned on Arab self-government. Instead, one of the Western allies, France, hoped to take Syria and Lebanon as its own protectorates, while Britain secured the dominant position in Palestine, Trans-Jordan, and Iraq. A secret Anglo-French deal of 1916, the Sykes-Picot Agreement, summarized this plan, and Lawrence appears to have been aware of it.  Lawrence went to the Versailles peace conference but was unable to persuade the principal negotiators to make Syria an independent Arab nation, and he and Faisal left in despair. Lawrence later refused to accept from King George V the medals he had won for his gallantry and distinguished service. In 1921, Winston Churchill became colonial secretary, and asked Lawrence--who for a short time had enjoyed a fellowship at All Souls' College, Oxford--to join the Colonial Office. In Churchill's service, Lawrence was soon back in Cairo and, at a conference there, was instrumental in Britain's offer of the Iraqi throne to Faisal, as compensation for his disappointment in Syria. Lawrence also managed to secure the throne of Trans-Jordan for Faisal's brother Abdulla.
32 This and other information about the trust can be found at
33 "These predominantly Albanian drug barons from Kosovo ship heroin exclusively from Asia's Golden Crescent, an apparently inexhaustible source. At one end of the crescent lies Afghanistan, which in 1999 surpassed Burma as the world's largest producer of opium poppies. From there, the heroin base passes through Iran to Turkey, where it is refined, and then placed into the hands of the Albanians who operate out of the lawless towns bordering FYR Macedonia, Albania, and Serbia. According to the US State Department, four to six tons of heroin move through Turkey every month. "Not very much is stopped", says one official. "We get just a fraction of the total". Not surprisingly, the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) has flourished along the route. Its dependence on the drug lords is difficult to prove, but the evidence is impossible to overlook. In 1998, German Federal Police froze two bank accounts belonging to the "United Kosova" organization at a Dusseldorf bank after it was discovered that several hundred thousand dollars had been deposited into those accounts by a convicted Kosovo Albanian drug trafficker. According to at least one published report, Bujar Bukoshi, Prime Minister of the "Kosova" Government in Exile, also allegedly controlled the accounts.  In early 1999 an Italian court in Brindisi convicted an Albanian heroin trafficker named Amarildo Vrioni, who admitted obtaining weapons for the KLA from the Mafia in exchange for drugs.  Last February 23, Czech police arrested Princ Dobroshi,the head of an Albanian Kosovo drug gang. While searching his apartment, they discovered evidence that he had placed orders for light infantry weapons and rocket systems. No one had questioned what a small-time dealer would be doing with rockets. Only later did Czech police reveal he was shipping them to the KLA. The Czechs extradited Dobroshi to Norway where he had escaped from prison in 1997 while serving a 14-year sentence for heroin trafficking. "
34   It is interesting to note that in 1877 the board of the Pennsylvania Railroad authorized its vice president to move to London to act as the railroad's general agent, since the London Joint Stock Bank "can only act as disbursing agent for interest and dividends....English stockholders meet at City Terminus Hotel in London; called by VP Edmund Smith to allay rumors that have been circulated for about a year, particularly by the London Daily Telegraph, damaging the company's credit; Henry Crosfiled, principal auditor of London & North Western Railway, also speaks; he endorses soundness of PRR and requests that the PRR provide regular monthly and annual reports of traffic and expenses for publication in the UK, and that it either revise the form of its accounts in line with British practice, particularly regarding the income from subsidiaries, or produce such forms for British use only, and issue reports for all PRR system companies in same format and for common fiscal year. "  In 1893 the PRR obtained a six-month loan of L250,000 from London Joint Stock Bank.  According to Dope, Inc. by Executive Intelligence Review, there is a "tightly closed financial network with origins in the British and Dutch East India Companies and modern origins in the narcotics traffic in the British Opium Wars of the 1840s.  The paradigm for this network is the London Committee, or British-based directors, of the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, the central bank for Dope, Incorporated.  It ties in directly and immediately to the five big London clearing banks, the five London 'gold pool' dealers, and the big Canadian international banks....The Oppenheimer mining group, heirs to the empire of Cecil Rhodes, is the dominant force--in collaboration with Hong-Shang and its Mideast subsidiaries--in the illegal traffic in gold and diamonds through which so much dirty money is turned into untraceable, portable assets.  Through its diamond monopoly, De Beers, its mining corporations, Anglo-American Mining and Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa, through its commodity trading organization, Phibro, the Oppenheimer group has expanded its tentacles across the world and, most of all, in the United States."  (pp. 93-94)
35 and
36   "The central defect of 'the evil' is not the sin but the refusal to acknowledge it. More often than not these people will be looked at as solid citizens. How can that be? How can they be evil and not designated as criminals? The key word is "designated". They are criminals in that they commit "crimes" against life and liveliness. But except in rare instances- such as in the case of Hitler when they might achieve extraordinary degrees of political power that remove them from ordinary restraints, their "crimes are so subtle and covert that they cannot clearly be designated as crimes. The theme of hiding and covertness will occur again and again throughout the rest of this book. It is the basis for the title "People of the Lie"....Evil deeds do not make an evil person. Otherwise we would all be evil. If evil people cannot be defined by the illegality of their deeds or the magnitude of their sins, then how are we to define them? The answer is by the consistency of their sins. While usually subtle, their destructiveness is remarkably consistent. This is because those who have "crossed over the line" are characterized by their absolute refusal to tolerate the sense of their own sinfulness....The poor in spirit do not commit evil. Evil is not committed by people who feel uncertain about their righteousness, who question their own motives, who worry about betraying themselves. The evil of this world is committed by the spiritual fat cats, by the Pharisees of our own day, the self-righteous who think they are without sin because they are unwilling to suffer the discomfort of significant self-examination. It is out of their failure to put themselves on trial that their evil arises. They are, in my experience remarkably greedy people....A predominant characteristic of the behavior that I call evil is scapegoating. Because in their hearts they consider themselves above reproach, they must lash out at anyone who does reproach them. They sacrifice others to preserve their self-image of perfect....Utterly dedicated to preserving their self-image of perfection, they are unceasingly engaged in the effort to maintain the appearance of moral purity. They are acutely sensitive to social norms and what others might think of them. They seem to live lives that are above reproach. The words "image", "appearance" and "outwardly" are crucial to understanding the morality of 'the evil'. While they lack any motivation to be good, they intensely desire to appear good. Their goodness is all on a level of pretense. It is in effect a lie. Actually the lie is designed not so much to deceive others as to deceive themselves. We lie only when we are attempting to cover up something we know to be illicit. At one and the same time 'the evil' are aware of their evil and desperately trying to avoid the awareness. We become evil by attempting to hide from ourselves. The wickedness of 'the evil' is not committed directly, but indirectly as a part of this cover-up process. Evil originates not in the absence of guilt but in the effort to escape it."  
37  See
38  The INQUIRY and its members wrote most of Woodrow Wilson's 14 points. Many of the members of the INQUIRY and the US State department delegates at the Paris Peace conference belonged to the American branch of a secret society founded by the English imperialist Cecil Rhodes. At the Paris Peace conference they traded off most of the 14 points to establish the League of Nations. After the conference they attended a meeting at the Hotel Majestic and become the founding fathers of the Council on Foreign Relations. Woodrow Wilson caught on to the betrayal and was so upset that he suffered a stroke and refused to speak to Edward Mandel House ever again. The American people didn't want to belong to an organization that could force them to go to war and would be turned into an international police force. America would never join the League of Nations. On September 12, 1939, the Council on Foreign Relations began to take control of the Department of State. On that day Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Editor of Foreign Affairs, and Walter H. Mallory, Executive Director of the Council on Foreign Relations, paid a visit to the State Department. The Council proposed forming groups of experts to proceed with research in the general areas of Security, Armament, Economic, Political, and Territorial problems. The State Department accepted the proposal. The project (1939-1945) was called Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies. Hamilton Fish Armstrong was Executive director. In February 1941 the CFR officially became part of the State Department. The Department of State established the Division of Special Research. It was organized just like the Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies project. It was divided into Economic, Political, Territorial, and Security Sections. The Research Secretaries serving with the Council groups were hired by the State Department to work in the new division. These men also were permitted to continue serving as Research Secretaries to their respective Council groups. Leo Pasvolsky was appointed Director of Research. In 1942 the relationship between the Department of State and the Council on Foreign Relations strengthened again. The Department organized an Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policies. The Chairman was Secretary Cordell Hull, the vice chairman, Under Secretary Sumner Wells, Dr. Leo Pasvolsky ( director of the Division of Special Research) was appointed Executive Officer. Several experts were brought in from outside the Department. The outside experts were Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies members; Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Isaiah Bowman, Benjamin V. Cohen, Norman H. Davis, and James T. Shotwell. In total there were 362 meetings of the War and Peace Studies groups. The meetings were held at Council on Foreign Relations headquarters -- the Harold Pratt house, Fifty-Eight East Sixty-Eighth Street, New York City. The Council's wartime work was confidential. Council on Foreign Relations founding father Isaiah Bowman wrote, "The matter is strictly confidential because the whole plan would be 'ditched' if it became generally known that the State Department is working in collaboration with any outside group." The Rockefeller Foundation funded the project with nearly $350,000.  In 1945 the Council's goal of establishing a League of Nations would be realized when the War and Peace Study group members actively participated in the preparing for and attending the San Francisco conference to establish the United Nations. This time the American people weren't asked whether or not they wanted to join. 
See also .
With reference to the background of Lippmann and Bowman:  
Lippmann (1889-1974) was born in New York  to German Jewish parents. While a student at Harvard, he became a socialist, and spent his life as a "liberal" journalist, who happened to be a close adviser to several presidents.  Bowman became president of Johns Hopkins University and was appointed special adviser to the secretary of state and was later a member of the American delegation at the conference at which the United Nations was founded.   The first president of Johns Hopkins, Daniel Coit Gilman, had been the incorporator of the Russell Trust, which holds title to the assets of Skull and Bones at Yale. and For further information on Beer, see Beer was also one of the originators of the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London and its American branch, The Council on Foreign Relations. Thomas W. Lamont, Isaiah Bowman, George Louis Beer and Whitney H. Shepardson approached Robert Cecil about planning a strategy for future joint ventures. They arranged for a party for fifty at the Hotel Majestic in Paris on May 30. 1919. At Paris the Royal Institute for International Affairs was created after WWI. The rather loosely organized group in the U.S. included George Louis Beer, Walter Lippman, Frank Aydetlotte, Whitney Shepardson, Thomas W. Lamont, Jerome D. Green, Erwin D. Canham (Christian Science Monitor) and others.
39  In 1869  Hudson’s Bay was headed by  George Stephen from Scotland, who hired his cousin Donald Smith (later Lord Strathcona, who would later found the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co.--BP. ). Besides being chairman of the Bank of Montreal, Stephen was also the major shareholder in the Canadian Pacific Railroad, which was completed in 1886 after many near-bankruptcies.  [W. G. Hardy, From Sea unto Sea: Canada--1850 to 1910, The Road to Nationhood (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co. 1960), p. 220.]  In the beginning of the construction of the railroad, Smith used Phillip Rose’s investment banking firm--Morton, Rose  [Morton, Rose in England (Morton, Bliss of New York), whose partners were Levi P. Morton (U.S. Ambassador to France and later Vice President. of United States), Sir John Rose (member of Macdonald-Cartier ministry in Canada), Pascoe DuPre Grenfell and George Bliss. Firm was later merged into Guaranty Trust of New York. Dorothy R. Adler, British Investment in American Railways 1834-1898 (Charlottesville, Va.: The University Press of Virginia, 1970), p. 90.]—to float issues of stocks and bonds. In the last two issues he was able to convince Barings Bank to assist him because the previous issues had not brought in any much-needed capital.  Barings was strictly an English firm until 1891 when a New York firm comprised of a family member was established (Baring, Magoun & Co.) by Alexander Baring, formerly of Kennedy, Todd & Co. (NY) and George Magoun, formerly of Kidder, Peabody & Co. The English firm dealt with Baring & Magoun in New York and Kidder, Peabody in Boston. The Baring family had migrated to Exeter, England from Bremen, Germany in 1717, and their descendants, Alexander and Henry Baring, married Americans. Barings had been one of the first English firms to handle American railroad bonds, and had a long-standing relationship with the B&O Railroad in Baltimore, Maryland. [Dorothy R. Adler, British Investment in American Railways 1834-1898 (Charlottesville, Va.: The University Press of Virginia, 1970), p. 144.] According to the writers of Dope, Inc., by 1916 the Keswick family of Jardine Matheson had secured controlling interest of the Hudson’s Bay Company, and they made a deal with Sam and Abe Bronfman to buy the Canadian Pure Drug Company.   Since 1963 Hudson’s Bay Company has been interlocked with the Canadian Corporate Management Corporation headed by Walter Lockhart Gordon of Canada’s Liberal Party. Gordon was also chancellor of York University, which houses the North American center of "explicit Maoism" called the Norman Bethune Institute. Gordon and his accounting partner also created Rochdale College in Toronto, which in the early 1970s was the subject of newspaper headlines when Canadian police shut the college down because of the rampant illicit drug consumption and retail distribution at the campus. Gordon has been closely connected with the Canadian Pacific Co., which is interlocked three ways with Seagrams and with the five major Canadian banks--the Bank of Montreal, the Royal Bank of Canada, the Bank of Nova Scotia, the Toronto Dominion Bank, and the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce. [From EIR: Dope, Inc.)] The networks for smuggling of the drugs were established during the days of American prohibition. Drugs were brought to Canada from Asia via the railroad terminus on the Pacific Ocean. To hide the involvement of the Canadian Pacific Railroad, a dummy corporation, Transcanada Transport was set up. After a 1922 scandal airing the Bronfmans’ crime connections in a public hearing, the family relocated their business to Montreal. Whereas they had previously imported whiskey from the Distillery Company of London (owned by "the higher echelons of the British nobility"), they transported a distillery from Kentucky to Montreal and were given distribution rights by the King. The Bronfmans then became a 50-50 partner with their previous supplier in a new holding company set up in 1926 in which William Ross of London was named as president, with Sam Bronfman as vice-president. Following another scandal involving Harry Bronfman, the family acquired a shipping subsidiary—Atlas Shipping Co.—which they moved to two islands on the Newfoundland coast, where their smuggling operations thereafter were based.   
The interlocking management among Hudson Bay, Seagrams,and the Canadian banks continued to overlap with the management of Lazard Brothers and British Intelligence operators. Between 1920-44 a partner and managing director of the London office of Lazard Brothers was Lord Robert H. Brand (named Baron Brand in 1946), who along with Lords Astor, Milner, Altrincham, and General Smuts made up the "Round Table Group," later called the "Cliveden Set," which controlled the Rhodes Trust, the Beit Trust, The Times of London and The Observer. Brand, regarded as the economist of the Round Table Group, was a director of Lloyd’s Bank and director of The Times. His wife was Nancy Astor’s sister, an American from the Langhorne family in Virginia. Brand was also financial advisor for Lord Robert Cecil. When Lord Brand left Lazard in 1944, his nephew Thomas Henry Brand replaced him.  [ Carroll Quigley, Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time (New York: The Macmillan Company, 19 ), p. 581. and Carroll Quigley, The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden (New York: Focus, Inc., 1981), pp. 59-60. ]
40 and and with reference to the Duchy of Cornwall "Since the 14th century the Duchy's main purpose has been to provide an income, independent of the Monarch, for the heir apparent. That income covers the cost of the public and private life of the current Duke, The Prince of Wales. Neither he nor his sons receives an allowance from the Civil List. When there is no male heir, the Duchy reverts to the Monarch and its income to the Exchequer."  Currently, Prince Charles is the Duke of Cornwall.  "The Duchy of Cornwall's latest annual report, made public on June 29, 2000, recorded an annual net surplus of £6,932,000 in the year to March 31, 2000. Profit of £6,421,000 had been reported for the previous year." To see other properties and income of the  Royal Family, see and  There seems to be an incestuous relationship between investment managers for the Royal Family and the pension funds controlled by Prudential Insurance.
41  Brascan Ltd. began in 1945 as the British Newfoundland Corp and was rechartered by William Stephenson as British American Canadian Co., then World Commerce Corp., of Panama; Brascan board members have included Edgar Bronfman of Seagrams and Lord Carrington, a co-founder of Kissinger & Associates.
43  and
45  By March 1896 "J.S. Morgan; Brown, Shipley; and Baring Brothers, Ltd., announced that they had agreed to cooperate to protect the British holders of securities issued through their houses [according to Burdett's].... On the other hand, the Economist commented on this announcement:  'In many instances, however, the protection thus accorded to English holders of American railroad securities has been a very costly piece of business, and has materially added to the losses which the general proprietary bodies have had to sustain. Of course, we do not expect issuing houses to work for nothing, but there is a moral responsibility attaching to their position which should weigh with them, and induce them to use their best endeavours in the protection of the interests which they have helped to create, without reference to the fees to which their services may entitle them.  And when these services are volunteered, there is all the more reason why their cost should be kept within moderate limits.'" [Source:  Dorothy R. Adler, British Investment in American Railways: 1834-1898, p. 164.]
47 See The London School of Economics and Political Science was officially opened in the autumn of 1895. It owed its existence to the will of Henry Hunt Hutchinson, a provincial member of the Fabian Society, who had left a significant sum of money in trust for 'propaganda and other purposes of the said [Fabian] Society and its Socialism and towards advancing its objects in any way they [the trustees] deem advisable'. Sidney Webb, named as one of Hutchinson's trustees, believed the money should be used to encourage research and study of economics. ...Sidney Webb was the driving and organizing force in the establishment and early years of the School, acting as Chairman of the Hutchinson Trust, the School Trustees, the Administrative Committee and the Library Committee, ....;  see also].
Prepared under the auspices of the League of Nations Association. Pioneers in world order; an American appraisal of the League of Nations:  Foreword, by R. B. Fosdick.--The framework of peace, by Arthur Sweetser.--Security, by J. T. Shotwell.--Disarmament, by Laura P. Morgan.--The world court, by M. O. Hudson.--International civil service, by F. G. Boudreau.--The International labor organization, by Carter Goodrich.--Control of special areas, by Sarah Wambaugh.--Dependent peoples and mandates, by Huntington Gilchrist.--World economics, by H. F. Grady.--International double taxation, by M. B. Carroll.--Standardizing world statistics, by E. D. Durand.--Dangerous drugs, by H. L. May.--International health work, by F. G. Boudreau.--Refugees, by J. G. McDonald.--Social problems by Elsa Castendyck.--The league of minds, by M. W. Davis.
49 and  According to the diaries of William Dodd, the American Ambassador to Germany,in 1933 a stream of Wall Street bankers and industrialists filed through the U.S. Embassy in Berlin, expressing their admiration for Adolf Hitler — and anxious to find ways to do business with the new totalitarian regime. For example, on September 1, 1933 Dodd recorded that Henry Mann of the National City Bank and Winthrop W. Aldrich of the Chase Bank both met with Hitler and "these bankers feel they can work with him." Ivy Lee, the Rockefeller public relations agent, according to Dodd "showed himself at once a capitalist and an advocate of Fascism."

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by Linda Minor © 2002 (All rights reserved.)