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WILL WINTER COLD STOP WEST NILE FEVER? IS IT A BIOTERRORIST ATTACK?

ENTER THE CIA?  The CIA investigated (or is it still investigating?) whether the recent outbreak of West Nile-like fever in New York was bio-terrorism.   The Center for Disease Control and other U.S. government authorities refuse to state that West Nile-like fever is "bio-terrorism."  Yet the origin of the disease, its spread and even its identity are uncertain.  (Note the Agency for International Development (AID) an intelligence operation active in the "third world" helped Rumania stop an outbreak of West-Nile. ( See book Emerging Viruses by Leonard Horowitz, re: AID's presence in Africa in areas where viruses emerged.)  Does the failure of the CIA to completely rule out bioterrorism prove that the doom and gloom crowd saving beans and rice in vats in their basements, have more to fear than solar flares--such as the USA's Center for Disease Control?

A MUST READ: West Nile Mystery by Richard Preston, New Yorker, October 18 & 25, 1999, pp. 90-107.

(Excerpt:) "THE mystery of how a West Nile-like virus got to New York City has been troubling the Central Intelligence Agency. At the headquarters of the CIA., in Langley, Virginia, there is a group of analysts and officers who concern themselves with biological weapons -- the CIA.'s bioweapons-analysis section. The section is run by a senior biologist who has had firsthand experience with some of the world's most dangerous viruses, including the Ebola virus. The scientist is said to be well respected by his peers, and he works with a team of analysts, mainly younger people fresh out of college. The analysts gather intelligence involving bioweapons and then try to assemble the big picture, fitting the data together with what they already know about bioweapons. After the New York diagnosis was changed to West Nile, on September 27th, the top officers in the bioweapons-analysis section suffered a lurch of uneasy recognition: they recalled a report that a self-described defector from Iraq had declared last April that Saddam Hussein was developing a strain of the West Nile virus as a biological weapon and was preparing to release it.

Someone in the analysis section apparently noticed that on April 6th a British tabloid, the Daily Mail of London, had published an excerpt from a book entitled "In the Shadow of Saddam," with a note that the account's credibility was "for the reader to judge." The author calls himself Mikhael Ramadan. That may or may not be his real name. Mikhael Ramadan is said to look a lot like Saddam Hussein. Purportedly, he served as one of Saddam's doubles, in order to help foil assassination attempts. There is a photograph, supposedly of him, on the back cover of the book, and he looks remarkably like Saddam except that he has more gray at the temples, and somehow he looks kindly. Eventually, Mikhael Ramadan managed to escape from Iraq. In his book he offers a wild-sounding account of his experiences working as Saddam's double, including such vignettes as a Kurdish rebel being lowered slowly into a vat of sulfuric acid. Mr. Ramadan also wrote, as the Daily Mail published it:

In 1997, on almost the last occasion we met, Saddam summoned me to his study. Seldom had I seen him so elated. Unlocking the top right-hand drawer of his desk, he produced a bulky, leather-bound dossier and read extracts from it.... The dossier holds details of his ultimate weapon, developed in secret laboratories outside Iraq.... Free of UN inspection, the laboratories would develop the SV1417 strain of the West Nile virus-capable of destroying 97 pc [per cent] of all life in an urban environment.... He said SV1417 was to be "operationally tested" on a Third World population centre.... The target had been selected, Saddam said, "but that is not for your innocent ears."

It sounded crazy. But why would a man presenting himself as an Iraqi defector predict that Saddam would unleash a virus just months before the same one broke out unexpectedly in New York? And, of all the thousands of viruses in the world, why West Nile? It was enough to make any bioweapons analyst at the CIA. feel uneasy. Adding another twist to the story, it turns out that in 1985 the Centers for Disease Control had sent samples of West Nile virus to a researcher in Iraq, which occasioned a controversy in the media five years later, on the eve of the Gulf War, when reports came out that Iraq had a biowarfare program. But the fatality rate for West Nile is not remotely near ninety-seven per cent, and "SV1417" is not a standard designation for any known strain of West Nile virus. It may be a code designation for some strain that Saddam's bioweaponeers might conceivably be working on, perhaps in a French-built virology facility near Baghdad that has been closed to inspectors from the United Nations for two years, ever since Saddam threw out all the U.N. inspectors. In the early nineteen-eighties, a French vaccine company, Institut Merieux, which is a division of the pharmaceutical giant Rhone-Poulenc, built a facility called the Foot and Mouth Vaccine Plant at a site now known as Al Manal. Institut Merieux helped the Iraqis operate Al Manal for a time, and trained the staff before departing. Al Manal was subsequently used for research into virus weapons. During the Gulf War, Al Manal and the Merieux equipment were used for making twenty thousand litres of botulinum toxin, or BTX -- one of the most lethal biotoxins known. In 1992, the United Nations tore down the buildings in which the BTX was made and destroyed that equipment, but it left standing eighty per cent of the facility, part of which was for virus research. (Some inspectors wanted the whole thing torn down.) Al Manal may be back in business developing virus weapons.

At the same time that the report about West Nile virus was being discussed in the CIA., Dr. Ken Alibek, the former deputy chief of research for Biopreparat, the Soviet Union's main biowarfare program -- he defected to the United States in 1992 -- spoke to various people on Capitol Hill, voicing his concern that the West Nile outbreak was suspicious. "I told them, 'It will not be possible to say whether or not it is terrorism unless we have a thorough study,' " he explained to me. "We need to take these situations with a high degree of seriousness."

Mikhael Ramadan is now apparently in hiding somewhere in Canada or the United States. At any rate, the CIA. people had an interest in finding him. Presumably, they would want to ask him more questions about the West Nile virus and whatever Saddam might have told him about any plans Iraq might have had for it and New York City. I don't know whether they succeeded in finding him.

Hoping to speak with Mikhael Ramadan myself, I called his publisher, a tiny outfit called GreeNZone Publishing, which has an office in the south of England. One of the firm's three directors, James Bartholomew, answered the telephone. "We don't know Mikhael Ramadan's whereabouts," he said. "We believe he was in Canada for a while. We have five employees here, and none of our people has ever met him. We were introduced to him through a third party. There was a woman, an American-Iraqi nurse, involved in bringing him forward. There was a verification meeting with him that took place in the fall of last year, in Canada, I guess. All of our communication with him has been by E-mail. His E-mail address is now defunct. His manuscript was physically delivered to us by a courier outfit. We tried to get him to change his mind and come forward for television interviews. We had inquiries from NBC and CBS. What is that show, '60 Minutes'? -- they were trying to find him. The book has sold well for a company our size. We want to pay him, but we can't find him."

"Is the book fiction?"

"We've taken his book as true, based on the evidence we have. But we don't know how much of it is true."

"What's the evidence?"

"I can't say. It would put him in danger," Mr. Bartholomew said. "True or not, it was a good story. We saw it as a commercial proposition. We weren't trying to educate the world."

I then spoke with the Secretary of the Navy, Richard Danzig. As early as 1993, Danzig had played a leading role in encouraging the government to plan for a possible bioterror event. He is a soft-spoken man with a thin face and spectacles, and he didn't sound alarmed. "A point I've been making to emergency planning groups is that, though we may know that a biological event has occurred, we may not know if it's an incident of bioterrorism," he said. "Even if you suspect biological terrorism, it's hard to prove. It's equally hard to disprove. This is more illuminating of my prediction that we won't necessarily know when bioterror has occurred than it is illuminating of Saddam Hussein."

I called a top scientist who advises the F.B.I., a person who has been deeply involved with bioterror planning. The F.B.I. is currently investigating more than two hundred threats, hoaxes, and attempts at bioterrorism that have occurred in the United States in just the past year -- it's got to the point where every wanna-be terrorist is threatening to unleash a bug. This scientist seemed thoughtful, and said that West Nile might be a good one. He said, "If I was planning a bioterror event, I'd do things with subtle finesse, to make it look like a natural outbreak. That would delay the response and lock up the decision making process."

An Army expert on bioweapons told me that the military has known for some time that Soviet biologists working for the U.S.S.R.'s biowarfare program had evaluated the West Nile virus for use as a biological weapon. "The Russians did this kind of crap back in the seventies -- they're admitting it to us now," he said. The Soviet scientists were interested in West Nile because it can be put into mosquitoes and the mosquitoes can be released into a city, where they will bite people. "They abandoned it because it didn't work very well," he said. "How many containers of West Nile-infested insects do you need to release in Queens to make it worth a shot?"

BY Friday, October 1st, the Mikhael Ramadan story had surfaced at the Centers for Disease Control, in Atlanta. Dr. Scott Lillibridge, who is the head of the C.D.C.'s Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Program, alerted other scientists at the C.D.C. about the allegations and asked them to evaluate the evidence. I spoke with a person at the C.D.C., who said, "We're taking it seriously. We'll see where the data takes us. It could be done. You'd have to bring in a lot of mosquitoes." If the mosquito-filled containers were made of plastic, they would not show up in a metal detector at Kennedy International Airport. He went on, "But West Nile is not a great biological weapon, because it doesn't hurt most people very much."

 ALERT! U.S. HORSES HAVE WEST- NILE LIKE FEVER!  U.S. DOGS HAVE WEST-NILE LIKE VIRUS!

Date: 20 Oct 1999
From: Joe Garrett, DVM, MPH
SYNOPSIS: The latest news from New York State is that West Nile-like virus has been laboratory confirmed in horses. Ten of 13 symptomatic horse from Suffolk County tested positive by the Centers for Disease Control and the Prevention and the National Veterinary Services Laboratory.  New York authorities have investigated 23 suspected horses and 13 have died or have been euthanized.  Some of these horses were laboratory positive for Equine Protozoal Myelitis.  No cases of encephalitis linked to WNV have been reported in pets during the outbreak.  Synopsis Provided by Texas Department of Health. Mod TG.

MEMORANDUM:(edited)
Date: October 19, 1999
From: John Huntley, DVM,
Director, Division of Animal Industry, New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets &                                        Millicent Eidson, MA, DVM,
Director, Zoonoses Program
New York State Department of Health
Subject:  West Nile-Like Virus, Update 
    (Note from NEWSMAKINGNEWS:  The following is an excerpt:)
" Pets: No cases of encephalitis linked to WNV have been documented in pets in this outbreak, nor does it appear from other WNV outbreaks overseas that this will be likely.  However, CDC has found 3 positive sera from healthy dogs in a preliminary screen of 84 dog serum samples from New York City.  Pets will probably be similar to most species of mammals and birds in that they are susceptible to a transient WNV infection if bitten by an infected mosquito, but are unlikely to become clinically ill." 

Humans: To date, there have been 56 confirmed human WNV cases with 7 deaths, all from New York City, Nassau, and Westchester counties.  Additional studies to determine the degree of asymptomatic infections in humans are underway.

Summary: The current WNV outbreak in New York, Connecticut, and New Jersey appears to be waning.  The number of laboratory confirmed cases in humans, birds, and horses appears to be declining even though new positive results continue as laboratory tests on previous cases are completed (as occurred with the horses.)  Due to low temperatures, most of the mosquito control activities have stopped.  It is not known at this time whether the outbreak will reoccur next spring. Federal wildlife officials are performing bird serosurveys along the Atlantic seaboard to document any possible spread of the outbreak.  Although documentation of infection in horses is a new development in this outbreak, previous outbreaks of WNV overseas indicate that overall morbidity and mortality for WNV infection in all species will be lower than for other causes of mosquito-borne human and equine encephalitis.

(COMMENT: WHAT HAPPENS TO THE INFECTED HORSE?) "Clinical signs of the virus in horses include lethargy, weakness in the hind quarters, stumbling and [loss of] coordination, lack of awareness, head tilt and head twitch, convulsions, circling, hyper excitability, partial paralysis and coma."
Joe Garrett, DVM, MPH
Epidemiologist,  Zoonosis Control Division, Texas Department of Health e-mail

WHAT HAPPENS TO THE INFECTED HUMAN?  "...the main effect of the outbreak in humans has been quiet: thousands of New Yorkers may have had West Nile virus replicating in their brains this summer without knowing it. In most people, the West Nile illness feels like a mild flu. Humans catch it from the bite of an infected mosquito. You might get a headache and a backache and the blahs; just another summer bug. Usually, the illness lasts from three to six days, and people recover quickly, without lasting effects. But in young children, the elderly, and people with weak immune systems West Nile can turn into encephalitis -- an inflammation of the brain. The brain becomes red and puffs up inside the skull. These victims may get tremors -- their muscles may become uncontrollably weak -- and they can have seizures, fall into a coma, stop breathing, and die."
October 11, 1999, by Richard Preston, New Yorker, October & 25, 1999, pp. 90-107.     

HONG KONG SAYS NO MORE U.S. HORSES ALLOWED!

"The Hong Kong Jockey Club said on Wednesday it was temporarily suspending the import of horses from North America due to the outbreak of West Nile [virus infections] in New York.  'This is a precautionary measure to prevent the possibility of the virus responsible for the fatal neurological disease from getting into the local mosquito population and infecting people, bird and animals in Hong Kong. http://foxnews.com October 23, 1999.

WHAT WAS THE U.S RESPONSE TO A PERCEIVED BIOTERROR ATTACK?  A TON OF "RAID" AND "OFF".   AND, OF COURSE,  A TRIP TO THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE, LAB?

ALL THIS TALK AND MONEY TO COMBAT TERRORISM AND CONTROL "TERRORISTS", AND UNCLE SAM SAYS, "GET ME THE OFF!  "On Friday, September 3rd, city officials learned that the C.D.C. believed that the virus was St. Louis encephalitis, and just two hours later Mayor Rudolph Giuliani ordered trucks and a helicopter to begin spraying insecticides over neighborhoods in northern Queens. The spraying eventually involved five helicopters, and was carried out all over the city and in many suburbs. The chief of the Mayor's Office of Emergency Management, Jerome Hauer, bought half a million cans and bottles of Off! and other insect repellents on behalf of New York City. He ended up cornering nearly the entire supply of insect repellent in the United States. The city handed out the bug repellent for free. Hauer also is in charge of New York City's preparations for a bioterror event. A bioterror event is the deliberate release of a biological weapon, such as anthrax or smallpox, by a terrorist a possibility that has city officials very concerned, and they've been having planning sessions and staging simulated terror exercises. It may be that their preparations for a bioterror event fortuitously speeded up the city's response to the outbreak of the brain virus."  Source:  Hardcopy New Yorker, October 18 & 25, 1999, pp. 90-107, by Richard Preston 

SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES SCIENTIST SAYS: "NOT SO REASSURING!"

"The encephalitis outbreak in New York is a powerful lesson for public health authorities," said Alan Zelicoff, a senior scientist at the Center for National Security and Arms Control at Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico. "It is a sobering, not so reassuring, demonstration of the inadequacies of the U.S. detection network for emerging diseases."

"We're spending hundreds of millions on questionable stockpiles of vaccines and antibiotics," said Zelicoff, the scientist at the Sandia Laboratory. "We should be improving the ability of local public health officials to recognize and report strange illnesses to a central authority that can quickly tell them what to do about it."  Quotations of Mr. Zelicoff are from: "In N.Y. Outbreak, Glimpse of Gaps in Biological Defenses" October 11, 1999, New York Times by Jennifer Steinhauer and Judith Miller.

THE MISTAKES (AT LEAST THE ONES WHICH ARE KNOWN):

  • Virus identified as St. Louis Encephalitis. Then West Nile.  Then Dr. Ian Lipkin, U.C. Irvine said it was an unknown strain of West Nile.  Now the CDC says it is West Nile only.  To find the real virus or not to find?
  • Scientist at the Bronx zoo, Dr. Tracy McNamara, who dissected sick birds, could not get anyone at the Center for Disease Control to return her calls for a week.  Luckily, Dr. McNamara recently attended the wedding of a pathologist working at the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command, and she asked him for a "favor"--to test her bird samples.  Eventually, the U.S. Army confirmed her suspicions that the CDC had the wrong virus.
  • Five helicopters started to spray all over the place.  Is spray the way to go.  Memories of Malathion.
  • In testing samples from the initial victims, the CDC screened only for six viruses common in this country. The scientists did not test for several that have been linked to foreign epidemics or germ warfare.

  • In 1985 the Centers for Disease Control had sent samples of West Nile virus to a researcher in Iraq, which occasioned a controversy in the media five years later, on the eve of the Gulf War, when reports came out that Iraq had a biowarfare program.                                                                                                               

    VIVE LA FRANCE! A French-built virology facility near Baghdad has been closed to UN inspectors for two years, since Saddam threw the inspectors out.  "In the early nineteen-eighties, a French vaccine company, Institut Merieux, which is a division of the pharmaceutical giant Rhone-Poulenc, built a facility called the Foot and Mouth Vaccine Plant at a site now known as Al Manal. Institut Merieux helped the Iraqis operate Al Manal for a time, and trained the staff before departing. Al Manal was subsequently used for research into virus weapons. During the Gulf War, Al Manal and the Merieux equipment were used for making twenty thousand litres of botulinum toxin, or BTX -- one of the most lethal biotoxins known. In 1992, the United Nations tore down the buildings in which the BTX was made and destroyed that equipment, but it left standing eighty per cent of the facility, part of which was for virus research. (Some inspectors wanted the whole thing torn down.) Al Manal may be back in business developing virus weapons." Source: October 11, 1999, by Richard Preston, New Yorker, October 18 & 25, 1999, pp. 90-107.    

CAN SOMEONE OUT THERE IDENTIFY THE BUG, PLEASE!

On October 22, 1999, the Center for Disease Control confirmed that it was the West Nile virus which caused five of the New York deaths. "The confirmation was made after tests and analyses were completed at CDC's laboratory in Fort Collins, Colorado, health officials said Thursday."  Source: CNN                                             http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9910/22/west.nile.01/

     In September 1999, New York City officials identified the virus as St. Louis encephalitis.  Then the Center for Disease Control and Prevention showed is was a West Nile-like strain.  On October 11, 1999, the British weekly medical journal Lancet published Dr. Ian Lipkin's peer-reviewed paper stating that the virus is not West Nile, but an "unknown strain." Dr. Ian Lipkin, director of the emerging disease lab at the University of California at Irvine, completed 20% of the genetic profile, and stated the virus fails to match any known strain, although it most closely resembles West Nile

NEWSWATCHINGNEWS POINT:  Does this situation remind you of the 80's when no one seem to know what the HIV virus really was? Until the public finally gained "some" knowledge, after millions of deaths occurred?   

AND HOW DID THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA GET INVOLVED?  WITHOUT INFORMING THE CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL?

" The New York State Department of Health, without telling CDC, sent some of the brain tissue from people believed to have died of St. Louis encephalitis to a lab run by Ian Lipkin, a scientist at the University of California in Irvine who had bumped into state scientists at a conference in Albany.

On Sept. 24, Lipkin found that a form of West Nile virus -- which scientists now believe is similar to a strain previously found in Europe -- had sickened the New York patients. Soon after, the CDC reached the same conclusion."  Source:                  "In N.Y. Outbreak, Glimpse of Gaps in Biological Defenses" October 11, 1999, New York Times by Jennifer Steinhauer and Judith Miller. http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/regional/101199virus-track.html.

Dr. Ian Lipkin has identified the New York virus as "Kunjin-West Nile-like virus."  Kunjin is an Australian virus strain. Dr. Ian Lipkin is the Director of the Emerging Diseases Laboratory at the University of California, Irvine. http://www.communications.uci.edu/99releases/121ap99.html

WHO CAN TRUST THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA?

Remember all the radiation experiments upon humans, discovered by the Department of Energy Director Hazel O'Leary in 1993 and 1994?  Remember the alleged spying at the Lawrence Livermore Lab?  Is the Human Genome involved?

       Is it surprising that Ian Lipkin, UC Davis, laboratory regarding emergency diseases stepped up to the plate to identify(?)  the potentially genetically engineered West Nile Virus as an "unknown strain."  The HUMAN GENOME PROJECT one of the most important projects in human history, is part of  University of California research.  The Lawrence Livermore Labs and the University of California operate Los Alamos and other U.S. research and testing grounds. 

      In the 1980's and 1990's, Michael Riconosciuto, a CIA operative and scientist and Robert Booth Nichols, and John Booth Nichols engaged in bio-military work at the Cabazon Indian reservation, near Palm Springs.  THE WACKENHUT CORPORATION, (the same out-fit that handled UC's experiments upon Emeryville, CA, children) entered into a partnership with the Cabazons.  According to Riconosciuto, the Pentagon's Defense Advanced Research Search Projects Agency was in charge of secret contracts for biological warfare research.  Riconosciuto testified under oath, that Stormont Laboratories was involved in the Wackenhut-Cabazon-DARPA project.  Jonathan Littman, S.F. Chronicle reporter stated: "Cabazons and Wackenhut appeared to be acting as middlemen between the Pentagon's DARPA and Stormont Laboratories, a small facility in Woodland near Sacramento."  Dr. Clyde Stormont, of UC Davis, owns Stormont Laboratories.  Stormont specializes in blood-typing animals to determine their genetics.  Recently, persons who own land near UC Davis discovered buried dead beagle dogs (radiated) on the land, and have sued in the Eastern District Sacramento, for damages against Stormont. The plaintiffs allege that Stormont and UC Davis used the beagles for experiments.  What was the DARPA project involving the Wackenhut-Cabazon partnership.   

WHO IS DR. CLYDE J. STORMONT OF UC DAVIS (retired)?

Clyde J. Stormont Awarded Honorary Degree

"The "Doctoris Medicinae Veterinaria" Honoris Causa was bestowed on Clyde J. Stormont, professor emeritus of the University of California at Davis, by the Universitas Veterinaria et Pharmceutica Brunensis (Brno), Czech Republic, for his pioneering work on animal blood groups and biochemical polymorphisms. The award was presented at the XXIV International Conference on Animal Genetics, held in Prague, Czech Republic, July 23, 1994. More than 300 people attended the special ceremony and scientific session held in his honor.

Stormont received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1947. In 1950, after serving in the U.S. Navy in the Pacific during World War II, Stormont joined the faculty of the University of California at Davis. During his 32-year career, Stormont and his coworkers discovered most of the major blood groups systems of cattle and horses. These discoveries led to the development of the animal parentage control industry that serves the cattle and horse breeding organizations today. During his academic career, Stormont trained scientists from 23 countries. Many who worked and trained in Stormont's lab went on to become world leaders in the field of animal genetics.

Stormont has received numerous awards and recognitions, including the Fulbright-Hays Award (1949), Louis Pasteur Medallion (1953), and honorary membership in the International Society for Animal Genetics (1976). In addition, he was elected to the Bison Hall of Fame (1984) and the Equine Research Hall of Fame (1990).

After retiring from the University of California, Stormont and several members of his research team started a private company devoted to animal identification and parentage control in domestic and exotic animals. Presently, he serves as chair and director of laboratory services of this company, Stormont Laboratories, Inc., of Woodland, California."

SOURCE:  Harris Lewin, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois

http://probe.nalusda.gov:8000/otherdocs/nagrpnews/nagrpnews21.html  NAGRP News -- National Animal Genome Research Program News.  Volume 2, No. 2, 1995.                                                                                          

NEWSMAKINGNEWS:  The rush to experiment upon animals AND humans, legally and illegally in order to develop the most effective biowarfare agents continues.   These biowarfare agents can be carried in a suit case full of dry ice.  They are worth, to arms dealers, billions of dollars.  THE WACKENHUT CORPORATION, BETTER KNOWN AS THE "CIA'S CIA" OFTEN MONITORS AND SECURES,  BLACK BUDGET SCIENCE OPERATIONS, SUCH AS "AREA 51".  Why was WACKENHUT monitoring school children in Emeryville?  Why were blood samples taken?   Why were so many children sick?  Why did so many end up in mental institutions?  Genetic experiments are the premiere experiments in biowarfare.  New viruses are being genetically engineered.  IS THE WEST NILE VIRUS ONE OF THESE? ARE THE CITIZENS OF NEW YORK CITY LAB RATS, JUST LIKE THE EMERYVILLE CHILDREN?   DID WACKENHUT HAVE ANY ROLE IN THE WEST NILE OUTBREAK?  CAN ANYONE IDENTIFY EXACTLY WHO PROVIDED THE WEST NILE VIRUS TO SADDAM IN 1985? [In 1985 the Centers for Disease Control had sent samples of West Nile virus to a researcher in Iraq, which occasioned a controversy in the media five years later, on the eve of the Gulf War, when reports came out that Iraq had a biowarfare program.]  And who, genetically engineered the West Nile-like virus, and what animal and human subjects were experimented upon (in California?) to create it?